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Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA) (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise) and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines) of carbohydrates, protein, essential fatty acids (EFAs), B-vitamins, calcium, iron, and vitamin D. Low EA and the associated nutrient deficiencies are more common in athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports (i.e., aesthetic, gravitational, and weight category sports) because low body fat and mass confer a competitive advantage. Other athletes at risk for energy and nutrient deficits include athletes following a vegetarian or gluten-free diet (GFD). Careful dietary planning can help an athlete meet energy and nutrient needs. This review covers the nutrition issues associated with low EA and special diets (i.e., vegetarian and GFD) and describes strategies to help female athletes meet their energy and nutrient needs. ...Leer mas
Approximately twenty per cent of adults have gallstones making it one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases in Western countries. About twenty per cent of gallstone patients requires medical, endoscopic, or surgical therapies such as cholecystectomy due to the onset of gallstone-related symptoms or gallstone-related complications. Thus, patients with symptomatic, uncomplicated or complicated gallstones, regardless of the type of stones, represent one of the largest patient categories admitted to European hospitals. ...Leer mas
Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of the hepatocytes in the secretion of bile and/or due to an obstruction at any level of the excretory pathway of bile, from the level of the hepatic parenchymal cells at the basolateral (sinusoidal) membrane of the hepatocyte to the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. Cholestatic jaundice can thus be classified into intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholestasis, depending upon the level of obstruction to bile flow. Intrahepatic cholestasis or functional cholestasis can be due to a disease involving the liver parenchymal cells and/or the intrahepatic bile ducts. Intrahepatic cholestasis can be further subclassified as intralobular (disease of liver parenchymal cells and transporter molecules) and extralobular (disease involving intrahepatic bile ducts) cholestasis. Extrahepatic cholestasis or obstructive cholestasis is due to excretory block outside of the liver, along with the extrahepatic bile ducts ...Leer mas
The modern concept of thyroid disruptors includes synthetic chemicals and bioactive compounds from food that interfere with any aspect of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, thyroid hormone biosynthesis and secretion, blood and transmembrane transport, metabolism and local actions of thyroid hormones. This review highlights relevant disruptors that affect populations through their diet: directly from food itself (fish oil and polyunsaturated fatty acids, pepper, coffee, cinnamon and resveratrol/grapes), through vegetable cultivation (pesticides) and from containers for food storage and cooking (bisphenol A, phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers). Due to the vital role of thyroid hormones during every stage of life, we review effects from the gestational period to adulthood, including evidence from in vitro studies, rodent models, human trials and epidemiological studies ...Leer mas
La leche y sus derivados constituyen un polémico grupo de alimentos que ha sido (y es) autor de muchos debates. Mientras que sus defensores aseguran que son imprescindibles para aportar calcio y fortalecer nuestros huesos, otros, los culpabilizan de ser los responsables de la mayor parte de enfermedades de la civilización. Llevo muchos años leyendo sobre este debatido asunto y he querido plasmar todo ello en este Ebook de 26 páginas, siempre aportando ciencia, coherencia y sentido común. Podéis dejar vuestros pareceres en los comentarios, para que así, continúe el debate. ...Leer mas
Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. ...Leer mas
The knowledge about dietary habits and their influence in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease is insufficient. The aim of this study was to analyse the association of dietary factors and plasma thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). The study enrolled 1887 participants originating from the South Croatia. Participants with elevated plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab were defined as cases (n = 462) and those with TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab within referent values were defined as controls (n = 1425). Dietary intake was evaluated according to a food frequency questionnaire containing 58 food items. Principal component analysis was used to group food items into dietary groups. We used logistic regression analysis to examine dietary groups associated with positive plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab. The results indicate that the dietary group with frequent consumption of animal fats and butter is associated with positive plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab (p = 0.01). The dietary group with frequent consumption of vegetables as well as the dietary group with high consumption of dried fruit, nuts, and muesli are associated with negative findings of TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab (p = 0.048 and p = 0.02, respectively). We showed that the anti-inflammatory dietary groups are associated with the negative findings of plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab. ...Leer mas