BestPracticeswithChildrenandWirelessRadiation
aReviewofScienceandGlobalAdvisories
"Eventhoughtheradiofrequenciesthatareemittedfromcurrentcellphonetechnologiesareveryweakthey
areabletoactivatethehumanbrain."
NoraD.Volkow,M.D.,
DirectoroftheNationalInstituteonDrugAbuseattheNationalInstitutesofHealth
“ThreeyearsagotheWorldHealthOrganizationdeclaredcellphoneandotherwirelessradiationtobea
possiblehumancarcinogen,thesamecategoryassomepesticides,leadandengineexhausts.Sincethen
evidencehasmountedthatsuchradiationcanprofoundlyaffecthumanbiology,alteringbrainmetabolism,
damaginganimalsexposedduringpregnancyandreducingspermcount.Beforeblanketingourpreschools,
kindergartensandmiddleschoolswithwirelessradiationweneedafulllifecycleassessmentofeconomic
andhealthcostsandbenefitsofwirelesstechnology.”
DevraDavisPhDMPH,PresidentoftheEnvironmentalHealthTrust,
inherOpenLettertoPresidentObamaApril2014
Clickonblueletteringtoaccessonlineresourcesandresearch
1
TableofContents
Children’sUniqueVulnerabilitiestoWirelessRadiation
3
HealthRisks:AnOverviewofRisk
46
Prof.MarthaHerbertMD,PhD2/8/2013WirelessinSchools
7
Prof.DavidCarpenterMD2/28/2014LetteronWirelessinSchools
8
ConsiderationsforSchools
9
BestPracticesandExamplesofSchoolsImplementingBestPractices
1012
InternationalPrecautionaryActionsGovernmentsWorldWide
1316
ParentTeacherOrganizationsTakingAction
1719
SourcesofWirelessMicrowaveRadiationinSchools
20
TheFinePrintManufacturerWarnings
21
FederalRegulationsandTechnologyUseinSchools
22
CurrentFCCExposureGuidelinesWereNotSettoProtectChildren
2324
MedicalAdvisories
USPresident’sCancerPanel,TheEPA,TheCDC,NIEHS,FDA,DeptofInterior
25
TheEnvironmentandHumanHealthInc.Report
26
TheAmericanCollegeofObstetriciansandGynecologists,WingSpread2014
26
WorldHealthOrganizationClassificationofRadioFrequencyRadiation2011
27
MedicalAssociationsCallingforPrecautions
28
CommonlyAskedQuestionsandAnswers
29
Bibliography
35
2
Children’sUniqueVulnerabilitiestoWirelessRadiation
(OmP.Gandhietal.,2012)
Theimageabovedemonstratestheincreasedabsorptionofwirelessradiationwithinthebrainsofchildren
comparedtoadults.WIFIradiationhasnever
beenevaluatedforitslongtermimpactonthedevelopingbrain.
Recentresearchislinkingwirelesswithseriouspotentialhealtheffects.
Children,however,arenotlittleadultsandaredisproportionatelyimpactedbyallenvironmentalexposures,
includingcellphoneradiation.Infact,accordingtotheInternationalAgencyfortheResearchonCancer,when
usedbychildren,theaverageRF(radiofrequency)energydepositionistwotimeshigherinthebrainand10
timeshigherinthebonemarrowoftheskull,comparedwithmobilephoneusebyadults…itisessentialthat
anynewstandardforcellphonesorotherwirelessdevicesbebasedonprotectingtheyoungestandmost
vulnerablepopulationstoensuretheyaresafeguardedthroughouttheirlifetimes
.”
–Dr.RobertBlock,PresidentoftheAmericanAcademyofPediatrics,2012.
WhyareChildrenandtheDevelopingFetusMoreVulnerable?
Childrenhavesmallerheadswithashorterdistancetobraincenters.
Children’sskullsandearsarethinnerallowingradiationtopenetratefurther.
Children’sbrainscontainmorefluidandabsorbmoremicrowaveradiation.
"BecausetheWorldHealthOrganizationconsiderswirelessradiationapossiblehumancarcinogen,wireless
radiationdoesnotbelonginschoolswithyoungchildren”
AnthonyB.MillerMDPhD,expertadvisortoWHO,ProfessorEmeritusUniversityofTorontoinThe
C4STWomen'sCollegeHospitalSymposium9/12/14
Environmentalexposuresatcriticalperiodshasprofoundeffectsonfetalandchildhooddevelopment.
Children’snervoussystemsandimmunesystemsaredevelopingatarapidrate.
Brainsarematuringthroughtheearlytwenties.
Childrenhavemoreactivestemcellswhichareshowntobemoreimpactedbymicrowaveradiation.
"Asaresearchscientistandphysicianwhostudieshowmicrowaveradiationaffectstheoutcomes
ofpregnancy,Iamdeeplyconcernedaboutgrowingexposures
tocellphoneandotherwirelessradiation
." 
Prof.HughTaylor,MD,PhD,ChiefofObstetrics/GynecologyatYaleUniversityMedicalSchool,2013.
3
HealthRisks
WiFiislowlevelmicrowaveradiation.Manypublishedstudiesoverthepast20yearshaveshownanarrayof
seriousbiologicaleffectsfromlowlevelmicrowaves.DNAdamageanddisruptionofthebloodbrainbarrier
(BBB)haveoccurredatlevelshundredsoftimeslowerthanUSexposurelimits.Inthissectionweprovidean
overviewofsomehealthissuesrelatedtowirelessradiation.
Selectionsofresearchoneachhealthissuearedetailedattheendofthisdocument.
ReproductiveImpacts:Consistentevidencefromexperimentalresearch,epidemiologicalstudiesandinvitro
(cells)laboratory,andinvivo(animal)studiesshowsthatRFexposureisassociatedwithreducedsperm
count,motilityandconcentration,aswellasDNAdamageandalteredcellstructure.Someresearchalso
showsdamagetotheovariesofratsandmiceandchangesintheeggsoffliesandbirds.
“Theepidemiologicalstudiesofmenassessedforinfertilitywereconsistentindemonstratingdecreased
spermmotilityassociatedwithincreaseduseofmobilephones”and“biologicaleffectsonspermmotility
relatedtoRFexposure”.TheBCCenterforDiseaseControl2013Report,ARadiofrequencyToolkit
forEnvironmentalHealthPractitioners.
Cancer:Researchshowingthatlongtermheavycellphoneusershaveanincreasedriskofbraincancerlead
totheWHOIARCclassificationofthisradiationasaClass2Bcarcinogen:a“possiblehumancarcinogen”.A
studyshowedthatadultswhostartedusingcellorcordlessphonesasteenagershada8foldhigherriskof
braincanceronthesideoftheirheadwheretheyheldthephone.Todate,theonlypublishedstudyof
children's’riskofbraincancerfromcellphoneusefoundmorethana2foldriskafter>2.8yearsofuse(from
billingrecords),combinedwithastatisticallysignificanttrendofincreasingriskwithincreasingyearofuse.
Hearing:Researchshowschronicmobilephoneusageresultsinhighfrequencyhearinglossandinnerear
damage.Researchhasalsoshownsignificantriskoftumorsontheauditorynerveinthebrain(acoustic
neuromas).
DisruptionstoHeartFunctioning:Someresearchshowsincreasesinheartrate,arrhythmias,dizziness,
changesinbloodpressureandotherdisturbancesinheartfunctioningfromwirelessradiation.
“Adisservicehasbeendoneininaccuratelydepictingthebodyofscience,whichactuallyindicatesthat
therearebiologicaleffectsfromtheradiationemittedbywirelessdevices,includingdamagetoDNA,and
evidenceforincreasedriskofcancerandothersubstantialhealthconsequences…Thepublictheworldover
hasbeenmisledbythisreporting.”
Dr.RonaldB.Herberman,FoundingDirectoroftheUniversityofPittsburghCancerInstitute,Vice
ChancellorofCancerResearchatUniversityofPittsburghandthefirstheadofanNCIfunded
cancercentertospeakoutontherisksfromcellphones.
Headaches:Researchshowschildrenwhousedcellphonesorwereexposedprenatallytowirelessradiation
areathigherriskofdevelopingheadaches.
4
Neurotoxiceffects:Experimentalresearchshowschronicexposurekillsandreducesbraincells.2011NIH
researchfoundjust50minutesofawirelesstransmittingdevice(cellphone)nexttothebrainincreases
glucoseinthepartofthebrainmostexposed.Preliminary3Gand4Gresearchhasshownthatnonthermal
levelsofthisradiationalterthebrain’selectricalactivity.
Volkowetal,JournaloftheAmericanMedicalAssociation,2011
CognitionandImpairedMemory:RecentresearchatYaleUniversityfoundprenatallyexposedpupshad
impairedmemory,increasedhyperactivityandalteredbrainsconsistentwithagrowingliterature.
“WehaveshownthatbehavioralproblemsinmicethatresembleADHDarecausedbycellphoneexposure
inthewomb,”saidDr.HughTaylorofYaleMedicalSchool.“Theriseinbehavioraldisordersinhuman
childrenmaybeinpartduetofetalcellulartelephoneirradiationexposure.”
BehavioralIssues:Epidemiologicalstudieshaveshownassociationsbetweenexposuresandbehavioral
issuesinchildren.Forexample,arecentstudyshowedasignificantdoseresponserelationshipbetweenthe
numberanddurationofvoicecallsmadeoncellphonesandADHDriskamongchildrenexposedtoleadin
theirenvironment.
Microwavefromwirelesstechdisruptsthinking–whatcouldbeworseforlearning?Technologycanbeused
moresafelywithwireddevicesthatdonotproducethesebiologicallydisruptivelevelsofmicrowaveradiation”
saidCindySage,CoEditoroftheBioInitiativeReport,acomprehensivereportwrittenby29international
expertsonthecurrentscientificevidenceonelectromagneticfields.TheReportrecommendswiredaccess
withoutWiFiwheneverpossible.
Sleep:Researchshowsthisradiationfromwirelesstransmittingdevicescanimpactsleep.Forexample,this
radiationhasbeenshowntodelayentranceintodeepnonREMsleepanddecreasetimespentinthisstageof
sleep.Thequantityandqualityofsleephasaprofoundimpactonlearningandmemory.Asleepdeprived
personcannotfocusorlearnefficiently.Sleepalsohasacriticalroleintheconsolidationofmemoryessential
forlearningnewinformation.
“Radiationatextremelylowlevels(0.0001thelevelemittedbytheaveragedigitalcellulartelephone)caused
heartattacksandthedeathsofsomechickenembryos...independent,thirdpartypeerreviewedstudies
needtobeconductedintheU.S.tobeginexaminingtheeffectsfromradiationonmigratorybirdsandother
trustspecies.“
WillieTaylor,USDepartmentoftheInteriorinhisFebruary2014lettertoMr.EliVeenendaalofthe
NationalTelecommunicationsandInformationAdministration,U.S.Dept.ofCommerce.
5
Oxidativestress:Oxidativestressistheformationoftissuedamagingfreeradicals.Significantresearch
overwhelminglyshowswirelessradiationincreasesoxidativestress.Thisresponsedamagescellsandtheir
DNAthroughtheproductionofperoxidesandfreeradicals.Oxidativestressisimplicatedinthecauseofmany
diseasessuchascancerandAlzheimer’sdisease.
Genotoxiceffects:Studiesatnonthermal(nomeasurabletemperaturechange)levelsofmicrowave
exposuresshowchromosomalinstability,alteredgeneexpression,genemutations,DNAfragmentationand
DNAstructuralbreaks.Geneticmutationsandcellulardamagecanpotentiallycontributetocancergrowth.
Strongeffectshavebeenfoundinstemcells.Sincestemcellsaremoreactiveinchildren,researchersare
concernedthatchildrenareatincreasedrisk.
Scientificdataonthebiologicaleffectsofradiofrequency(RF)indicatetheneedtopursueaprecautionary
approachtoprotecttheexposedpopulation.ItisclearthatRFradiationcancausesingleanddoublestrand
DNAbreaksatexposurelevelsthatarecurrentlyconsideredsafeunderFCCguidelines.Dr.MartinBlank
ofColumbiaUniversityinhislettertotheLAUSD.
“Neuronaldamagemaynothaveimmediatelydemonstrableconsequences,evenifrepeated.Itmay,however,
inthelongrun,resultinreducedbrainreservecapacitythatmightbeunveiledbyotherlaterneuronaldisease
oreventhewearandtearofageing.Wecannotexcludethataftersomedecadesof(often),dailyuse,awhole
generationofusers,maysuffernegativeeffectssuchasautoimmuneandneurodegenerativediseasesmaybe
alreadyintheirmiddleage”.Dr.Salford,Dr.Nittby,andDr.PerssoninEffectsofElectromagneticFields
FromWirelessCommunicationupontheBloodBrainBarrierintheBioinitiativeReport2012ascientific
reviewofthescienceby29expertsintencountries.
EndocrineSystem:Researchhasshownimpactsonpinealgland,adrenalglandandthyroidgland.These
glandsbalancehormonesthatinvolvesleep.Researchhasshownthatlowlevelsofmicrowaveexposurecan
reducemelatonin.Melatoninisnotjustcriticaltomaintainingoursleeprhythmbutitisalsoanextremely
importantantioxidantthathelpstorepairdamagedDNAandreducesthegrowthofcancercells.Additionally,
researchshowsthyroidhormonelevelscanbeimpactedbywirelessradiation.Ithasbeenestablishedthat
evenasmallchangeinthyroidhormonescanalterthebrain.
Numerousexperimentalstudieslinkradiationfromwirelesstransmittingdevicestobiologicaleffects.Current
researchisraisingseriousconcernsaboutlongtermhealthimpacts.
“Waitingforhighlevelsofscientificandclinicalproofbeforetakingactiontopreventwellknownriskscanlead
toveryhighhealthandeconomiccosts,aswasthecasewithasbestos,leadedpetrolandtobacco.”
The2011EuropeanCommissionResolution1815
ASelectionofResearchforeachHealthIssueisattheendofthisonlinedocument.
PleasealsoseeTheBioinitiativeReport2012andPowerWatch.
“Wheretherearethreatsofseriousorirreversibledamage,lackoffullscientificcertaintyshallnotbeused
asareasonforpostponingcosteffectivemeasurestopreventenvironmentaldegradation.”TheUnited
Nation’sRioDeclarationontheEnvironmentandDevelopment,1992.
6
TO:LosAngelesUnifiedSchoolDistrict
FROM:MarthaRHerbert,PhD,MD
RE:Wirelessvs.WiredinClassrooms
DATE:February8,2013
IamapediatricneurologistandneuroscientistonthefacultyofHarvardMedicalSchoolandonstaffattheMassachusetts
GeneralHospital.IamBoardCertifiedinNeurologywithSpecialCompetencyinChildNeurology,andSubspecialty
CertificationinNeurodevelopmentalDisorders.
Ihaveanextensivehistoryofresearchandclinicalpracticeinneurodevelopmentaldisorders,particularlyautismspectrum
disorders.Ihavepublishedpapersinbrainimagingresearch,inphysiologicalabnormalitiesinautismspectrumdisorders,
andinenvironmentalinfluencesonneurodevelopmentaldisorderssuchasautismandonbraindevelopmentandfunction.
IrecentlyacceptedaninvitationtoreviewliteraturepertinenttoapotentiallinkbetweenAutismSpectrumDisordersand
ElectromagneticFrequencies(EMF)andRadiofrequencyRadiation(RFR).Isetouttowriteapaperofmodestlength,but
foundmuchmoreliteraturethanIhadanticipatedtoreview.Iendedupproducinga60pagesinglespacedpaperwithover
550citations.Itisavailableathttp://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wpcontent/uploads/pdfs/sec20_2012_Findings_in_Autism.pdf.
Infact,therearethousandsofpapersthathaveaccumulatedoverdecades–andarenowaccumulatingatanaccelerating
pace,asourabilitytomeasureimpactsbecomemoresensitive–thatdocumentadversehealthandneurologicalimpactsof
EMF/RFR.Childrenaremorevulnerablethanadults,andchildrenwithchronicillnessesand/orneurodevelopmental
disabilitiesareevenmorevulnerable.Elderlyorchronicallyilladultsaremorevulnerablethanhealthyadults.
Currenttechnologiesweredesignedandpromulgatedwithouttakingaccountofbiologicalimpactsotherthanthermal
impacts.Wenowknowthattherearealargearrayofimpactsthathavenothingtodowiththeheatingoftissue.Theclaim
fromwifiproponentsthattheonlyconcernisthermalimpactsisnowdefinitivelyoutdatedscientifically.
EMF/RFRfromwifiandcelltowerscanexertadisorganizingeffectontheabilitytolearnandremember,andcanalsobe
destabilizingtoimmuneandmetabolicfunction.Thiswillmakeitharderforsomechildrentolearn,particularlythosewhoare
alreadyhavingproblemsinthefirstplace.
PowerfulindustrialentitieshaveavestedinterestinleadingthepublictobelievethatEMF/RFR,whichwecannotsee,taste
ortouch,isharmless,butthisisnottrue.Pleasedotherightandprecautionarythingforourchildren.
IurgeyoutostepbackfromyourintentiontogowifiintheLAUSD,andinsteadoptforwiredtechnologies,particularlyfor
thosesubpopulationsthataremostsensitive.Itwillbeeasierforyoutomakeahealthierdecisionnowthantoundoa
misguideddecisionlater.
Thankyou.
MarthaHerbert,PhD,MD
PediatricNeurologydrherbert@autismwhyandhow.orgMartinosCenterforBiomedicalImaging
MassachusettsGeneralHospital,HarvardMedicalSchoolBoston,Massachusetts,USA
7
InstituteforHealthandtheEnvironment
DepartmentofEnvironmentalHealthSciences
28February2011ChairmanandTrustees
KawarthaPineRidgeDistrictSchoolBoard
EducationCentre
1994FisherDrive
Peterborough,OntarioK9J7A1
DearSirs/Madams:
Thisisconcerningpotentialadversehealtheffectsassociatedwithexposuretoradiofrequency(RF)radiation,specifically
thatfromwirelessrouters.Iamapublichealthphysicianwhohasbeeninvolvedinissuesrelatedtoelectromagneticfields
(EMFs)foranumberofyears.IservedastheExecutiveSecretaryfortheNewYorkPowerlineProjectinthe1980s,a
programofresearchwhichshowedthatchildrenlivinginhomeswithelevatedmagneticfieldscomingfrompowerlines
sufferedfromanelevatedriskofdevelopingleukemia.IhaveeditedtwobooksoneffectsofEMFs,includingRF
radiation.IservedasthecoeditoroftheBioinitiativeReport(www.bioinitiative.org),acomprehensivereviewofthe
literatureonthissubject.Thepublichealthchapterfromthisreportwassubsequentlypublishedinapeerreviewed
journal,andthatisattached.AlsoItestifiedbeforethePresident’sCancerPanelonthissubjectin2009,andapublication
comingfromthattestimonyisalsoattached.ThusthisisasubjectwhichIknowwell,andoneonwhichItakeapublic
healthapproachthathasasafundamentalprincipletheneedtoprotectagainstriskofdiseaseevenwhenonedoesnot
havealltheinformationthatwouldbedesirable.
Thereisclearandstrongevidencethatintensiveuseofcellphonesincreasestheriskofbraincancer,tumorsofthe
auditorynerveandcanceroftheparotidgland,thesalivaryglandinthecheekbytheear.Theevidenceforthisconclusion
isdetailedintheattachedpublications.WiFiusessimilarradiofrequencyradiation(1.8to5.0GHz),althoughtheintensity
ofexposureintheimmediateenvironmentismuchlowerthanwhatonegetsfromholdingacellphoneclosetoyourhead.
ThedifferencebetweenacellphoneandaWiFienvironment,however,isthatwhilethecellphoneisusedonly
intermittentlyaWiFienvironmentiscontinuous.InadditionWiFitransmittersareindoors,wherepeople(andinthiscase,
children)maybeveryclosetothem.ThereisevidencefromScandinavianstudiesofcellphoneusagethatchildrenwho
usecellphonesareaboutfivetimesmorelikelytodevelopbraincancerthanifusestartsasanadult.Thusitisespecially
importanttoprotectchildren.
TomyknowledgetherehasnotbeenanyhealthinvestigationofindividualslivingorworkinginWiFienvironmentsas
comparedtootherswhoarenot.However,becausetheradiationisthesameasthoseforcellphones,thereiseveryreason
toassumethatthehealtheffectswouldbethesame,varyingonlyinrelationtothetotaldoseofradiation.Wiredfacilities
donotgenerateanyRFradiation.WhilethereisnotspecificproofthatWiFiincreasesriskofcancer,thereiscertainlyno
evidencethatitissafe.IurgeyoutonotputWiFiinanyschool.Childrenshouldnotbeputatincreasedriskof
developingcancer.
Yourssincerely,
DavidO.Carpenter,M.D.
Director,InstituteforHealthandtheEnvironment,UniversityatAlbany
8
ConsiderationsforSchools
Schoolsneedtoprovidesafelearningenvironmentsandsafeworkingconditionsforstaff.
FrameworksforDecisionMaking
TheEnvironmentalHealthTrustrecommendsthatschoolsreduceexposuretochildrenandstaffto
levelsaslowasreasonablyachievable(ALARA).
FiberopticandethernetconnectionsaretheBest
Practicetechnologysolutionforschoolsallowingforfullinternetaccesswithoutradiationexposure.
ALARA=AsLowAsReasonablyAchievable
TheALARAprincipleisanintegralpartofbasicradiationsafetyplanninginmedicalandindustrialactivities.
Itgrowsoutoftheassumptionthatradiationcarrieswithitsomerisk.Thismeansthateveryactivity
involvingexposuretoradiationshouldkeepexposuretolowestlevelspossible.
Asregardsstandardsorthresholdvaluesforemissionsofelectromagneticfieldsofalltypesand
frequencies,
theAssemblystronglyrecommendsthattheALARA(aslowasreasonablyachievable)principle
isapplied.
TheEuropeanCommissionResolution1815
WirelessSystemsareNOT
EnergyEfficient:
Wirelessisanenergymonster;it’sjustinherentlyinefficient....Ourcalculationsshowthat,in2015,the
wirelessnetworksweusetoaccesscloudserviceswillcommandaround90%oftheenergyneededtopower
theentirewirelesscloudservicesecosystem….Thisisanincreaseincarbonfootprintfrom6megatonnesof
CO2in2012toupto30megatonnesofCO2in2015,theequivalentofadding4.9millioncarstotheroads.
TheCEETReport:ThePowerofWirelessCloud.
ThePrecautionaryPrinciple
Ifanactionorpolicyhasasuspectedriskofcausingharmtothepublicortotheenvironment,inthe
absenceofscientificconsensus,theburdenofproofthatitisnot
harmfulfallsonthosetakinganaction.
ThedearthoflegislationtoregulatetheinstallationofBTS(antennatowers)incloseproximitytochildren's
facilitiesandschoolsclearlyconstitutesahumanrightsconcernaccordingtothelanguageoftheConvention
ontheRightsoftheChild...Weconcludethat,becausescientificknowledgeisincomplete,aprecautionary
approachisbettersuitedtoStateobligationsunderinternationalhumanrightslaw
.ClaudiaRodaand
SusanPerry.
FiberOptic/EthernetWiredSystemversesWireless:
Speed:Wirelessbroadbandnetworkspeedsaregenerallyslowerthanfiberopticnetworks.Inaddition,the
greaterthenumberofusersaccessingawirelessaccesspointatonce,thegreateristhedegradationof
service.
Capacity:Wiredconnectivitycanofferover15timeshigherbandwidth.
Security:Wirelesssystemsareeasilyintercepted,tappedandhacked.
Reliability:Wiredsystemsdonothavetransmissionandinterferenceissueslikewireless.
Cost:Wirelessinfrastructuremustbecontinuallyupgradedandmodified.
Energy:Radiationabsorbedintohumansiswastedenergy.MinimizingRF=savingenergy.
Health:Wiredsystemsdonotemitradiationanddonotposeanypotentialhealthrisks.
9
BestPracticesforSchools
WiredLANInternetandCordedPhones
“ItisinthebestinterestoftheDistrict,itsBoard,andthechildren,teachersandstafftheDistrictprotectsto
providehealthyandsafeschoolenvironments....Failingtoselectwiredoverwirelesstechnologieswill
needlesslyexposehundredsofthousandsofschoolchildren,aswellasfacultyandstaffofLAUSDtomassive
newandunnecessaryRFR(RadioFrequencyRadiation)exposuresthatarealreadydesignatedasaPossible
HumanCarcinogen.
Instead,theBoardshouldadoptprogramstoexpandwiredinternetinfrastructureand“EMF/RFRbest
practices”includingtheuseofwired(CAT6orother),cablemodeminternet,orfiberopticconnectionsinstead
thatdonotproducetoxicexposures.”
CindySage,coauthorofTheBioinitiativeReport,AdvicetoLosAngelesUnitedSchoolDistrict.
Version3.0oftheUSANortheastCollaborativeforHighPerformanceSchoolsVersionCriteria
LowEMFBestPracticesintheINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYSection(USA)
EQ15.2.2Wiredlocalareanetwork(LAN)toreduceRFEMF
∙Installawiredlocalareanetwork(LAN)forInternetaccessthroughouttheschool.Providewirednetwork
connectionsfordesktopcomputers,laptops,notebooks,andtablets.Allwirelesstransmittersshallbe
disabledonallWiFienableddevices.Providewiredinputdevicesforcomputerworkstations.
EQ15.2.3WiredPhonestoreduceRFEMFinclassroom
∙Installeasilyaccessiblehardwiredphonesforteacherandstudentuseandprohibitinstallationanduseof
standardDECTcordlessphonesandcordlessphonesoperatingat2.4GHzand5.8GHzunlesstheyhave
beenlaboratorytestedtodemonstratethatthecordlessphonebasestationandhandsets(whetherplacedin
thechargingstationornot)donotemitRFEMFemissionsinstandbymode.
∙Prohibittheuseofcellphonesandotherpersonalelectronicdevicesininstructionalareas/classrooms.
Additionally,theyshallberequiredtobepoweredofforbeinairplanemode(sleepmodeisnotsufficient)
exceptduringfirelifesafetydrillsandincidents.
DownloadtheseBestPracticesHere
MobileLearningandHealthRisks:ImplicationsforPedagogicalandEducationalPractices
MikkoAhonen,PhD,DepartmentofComputerSciences,UniversityofTampere,Finland
BestPracticesRecommendations:
Minimizeexposuretime,nobasestations(IncludingWIFI)closetoclassrooms.
Avoidcontinuousmobiledatatransfer,prefersynchronized,offlineservices.
UseEthernetConnectionMostoftheTime.
10
AnExampletoConsider
DownloaditHere.
THEUPPERSTURTPRIMARYSCHOOL
WiFiandWirelessDevicesPolicy
UpperSturtPrimarySchooliscommittedtoprovidingasafeandhealthylearningenvironmentforourchildren.
Unprecedentedlongtermexposuretowirelesscomputernetworks(WiFi)andwirelesscommunicationdevicesinschool
maypresentapotentialhealthandsafetyriskorhazardforchildrenandstaff.
WiFiandwirelesscommunicationdevicessuchasmobilephonesandtabletsusemicrowaveradiofrequency.TheWorld
HealthOrganisation’sInternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer(IARC)classifiedmicrowaveradiofrequency
electromagneticfieldsasGroup2B‘possiblycarcinogenictohumans’(May2011).
TheAustralianRadiationProtectionandNuclearSafetyAgency(ARPANSA)FactSheet14Howtoreduceexposure
frommobilephonesandotherwirelessdevicesrecommendsreducingunnecessaryexposure
toradiofrequency
emissionsfrommobileandcordlessphones,otherwirelessdevicesandwirelesscomputernetworks(WiFi).Asa
precautionaryapproach,UpperSturtPrimarySchooluseswiredcomputerstosafelyaccesstheinternet.Wiredsmart
boardsandtelephoneshavealsobeeninstalledforeducationalandadministrativepurposes.
Operations:Toreduceexposuretounnecessarymicrowaveradiofrequencyemissions.
Leaders
Teachers
Students
Parents
*Informstaff,parentsand
studentsofWiFiand
WirelessDevicesPolicy
provideaccesstowired
computersandtelephones
(nocordlessDECTphones)
*Ensurenewbuildings(if
internetaccessrequired)
includeafullywired
ethernetinfrastructure
*Usepowerlineethernet
adaptorswhichuseexisting
electricalwiringtoextenda
network
*Recommendmobile
phonesbeswitchedto
flight/airplanemodewhen
notinuseandipodsand
tabletsbeusedin
flight/airplanemode
*Restrictuseofmicrowave
ovenaroundchildren
*Limituseofmobilephone
onschoolgroundsanduse
landlinewherepossible
*Turnoffmobilephoneor
switchtoflight/airplane
modewhennotinuse
*Keepconnectedphone
awayfromchildren
*Wirelessdevices
(tablets/ipods)usedfor
teachingmustbein
flight/airplanemode
*Avoiduseofmicrowave
ovenwhenchildrenare
present
*Turnoffmobilephoneor
switchtoflight/
airplanemodewhennotin
use
*Wirelessdevices
(tablets/ipods)usedfor
learningpurposesmustbe
inflight/airplanemode.
*Limituseofmobilephone
andwirelessdeviceson
schoolgrounds
*Turnoffmobilephoneor
switchtoflight/airplane
modeifspendingextended
timeatschoolwithchildren
eghearing
childrenread
Updated11/1/2014
11
MoreExamplesofSchoolsRemovingtheWiFi
2015:St.CajetanusSchool,Belgium:WiredInternetinstalledandwirelessremoved.
2015:WashingtonWaldorfSchool,Maryland,USA:RemovedWiFiRoutersfromBuildings,Ethernetinstalled.
2015:AshlandPublicSchools,Mass(USA):"BestPractices"toturntheWiFioffwhennotinuse,DownloadSlidesHERE.
2014:DearCroftMontessoriCA:Hardwiredinternettoyoungergrades.SeeVideo.
2014:PortlandWaldorfSchool,PortlandOregon,USA,WiFiremoved.
2014:WaldorfAvonmoreSchool:Wiredinternetonly
2014:MeetingHouseMontessori,BraintreeMassachusetts,USA,WiFireplacedwithethernet.
2014:Ghent,Finland,Wifibannedfrompreschoolsanddaycare.
2014:UPPER Sturt Primary School, Australia “No WIFI” LOW EMF Policy
2014:TheSt.AugustineSchoolinItalyturnedoffWifiandgoesbacktoWires.
2013WinlawElementarySchool,B.C.CanadaturnedoffWiFi.
2013TeHoroPrimarySchoolNewZealandReplacedWIFIwithcablebasedinternet.
2013KootenayLakesDistrictSchoolBoardBC(OneschoolwithoutWiFi)
2013BlaiseCendrarsHighSchool,Switzerland.TeachersvotetoremoveWiFi.
2012KiviojaprimaryschoolinYlivieskaFinlandbansphonesandminimizesWireless.
2012:HaltonWaldorf,inBurlingtonVermont:RemainingfreeofWirelessRadiation
2011CityofLakesWaldorfSchool,WiFitakenout.Minneapolis,MinnesotaUSA
2011AuroraSchoolinOntarioremovedWifiandreplacedwithhardwired.
2011NorthCaribooChristianSchoolinQuesnel,B.C.,removedWifi.
2011PrettyRiverAcademyinOntarionoWiFi.
2011WaysideAcademy,Peterborough,OntarionoWiFi.2010Surrey,BCRootsandWingsMontessori
removedWiFi.
2010OntarioSt.VincentEuphrasiaelementaryschool:ParentsvotedtoturnoffWiFi.
2009HEROUVILLESAINTCLAIRwifinetworksremoved.
Dr.EricaMalleryBlythe
RecommendationsofPhysicians'HealthInitiativeforRadiationandEnvironmentUK
from“ElectromagneticRadiationandChildren”November2014Lecture
Half
Measures
MinimiseUseofRFemittingtechnologygenerally
Replacedeviceswithlowradiationalternatives
UseAdaptivePowerControlAPC
Distancetheuserasmuchaspossible
AvoidMaxPowersituations
MinimizeELFfieldsalso
Ensureadequategroundingofdevices
DefensibleProtectionImmediately
Switchoffallemittingdeviceswhennotinuse
UseAirplaneMode
ASAPWithdrawallRFemissions
UseAlternatives(hardwiredeg.fibreoptic)
MinimizeELF(shielding/grounding)
12
INTERNATIONALPRECAUTIONARYACTIONS
Nomedicalorscientificorganizationstateslowlevelmicrowavesare“safe”.Duetotheaccumulatingresearch
showingbiologicalimpactsfromwirelessradiation,governmentsandhealthauthoritiesaroundtheworldare
takingactiontominimizeexposure.
“TheIARC2Bclassificationimpliesanassuranceofsafetythatcannotbeoffered—aparticularconcern,
giventheprospectthatmostoftheworld’spopulationwillhavelifelongexposuretoradiofrequency
electromagneticfields.”
Dr.JonathanSamet,physicianandepidemiologist,,ChairoftheWorldHealth
Organization’sEMFWorkingGroupwhomadetheClass2Bclassification,ina2014Commentary.
France:NationalLegislationandtheNationalAgencyforHealth,FoodandEnvironmentalSafety(ANSES).
2015Lawpassed:WiFibannedfromnurseryschools,Wifimustbebeturnedoffinelementaryschools
whennotinuse,Cellphoneadvertisementsmustrecommendheadsetstoreduceexposuretobrain.
2011FrenchCellPhoneStatute:MerchantsmustdisplaySARRadiationlevelsfordifferentphone
models,allphonesmustbesoldwithaheadset,cellphoneadsaimedatchildrenyoungerthan14
arebannedandphonesmadeforchildrenunder6arebanned.
2013ANSESReportrecommendshandsfreephones,SARlabeling,and“limitingthepopulation's
exposuretoradiofrequencies…especiallyforchildrenandintensiveusers,andcontrollingtheoverall
exposurethatresultsfromrelayantennas.”
TheFrenchNationalLibraryalongwithotherlibrariesinParis,andanumberofuniversitieshave
removedallWiFinetworks.
HerouvilleSaintClairhasremovedallWiFiequipmentinstalledinmunicipalbuildings.
Belgium:FederalPublicHealthRegulationsonMarch2013duetoHealthConcernsforChildren.
Phonesdesignedforchildrenunder7yearsoldareprohibitedfromsale.
TotalAdvertisingBanoncellphonesaimedatchildrenyoungerthan14.
MandatoryRadiationSARlevelsmustbeavailableforconsumersatpointofsale.
Warninglabelonphones:“Thinkaboutyourhealth–useyourmobilephonemoderately,make
yourcallswearinganearpieceandchooseasetwithalowerSARvalue.”
Recommendationsincludeuseofhandsfreemethodstokeepthephoneawayfromthebodysuchas
textmessagingandnotmakingcallswhenthesignalisweak,suchasinanelevatororvehicle.
GhentMunicipality:Wirelessinternetisbannedfromspacesthatcatertochildrenbetween0andthree:
preschoolsanddaycarestoreduceexposuretomicrowaveradiation.
Spain:TheParliamentofNavarravotedtourgeremovalofWIFIinschoolsandtoapplytheprecautionary
principleinrelationtoexposurelimitstoelectromagneticfieldswhoseboundarieshavebecome"obsolete".
TheParliamentvotedtoadoptaresolutionwhichcallstoimplementtheParliamentaryAssemblyofthe
CouncilofEuroperesolution1815of2011,whichrecommendsto"reviewthescientificbasisforthe
standardsofexposuretoelectromagneticfields"and"setthresholdsforlevelsofpreventivelongterm
exposureinallindoorareasnotexceeding0.6voltspermeter".
Australia:In2013theAustralianRadiationProtectionandNuclearSafetyAgencyissuedFactSheet14:titled
HowtoReduceexposurefrommobilephonesandotherwirelessdevices.
ReducetheriskfromWiFidevicesby“keepingthematadistance,forexampleplacingthewireless
routerawayfromwherepeoplespendtime”,and“reducingtheamountoftimeyouusethem”.
“ARPANSArecommendsthatparentsencouragetheirchildrentolimittheirexposure.”
13
Italy:TheItalianSupremeCourtruledaman’sbraintumorwascausedbyhiscellphoneusein2012.The
NationalInstituteforWorkmen’sCompensationmustcompensateaworkerwithheadtumorduetocelluse.
OnJune10,2015,theStateParliamentofSouthTyrolvotedtoallowtheapplicationofthe
precautionaryprinciplemandatingthestategovernmentto:
1.Toreplaceexistingwirelessnetworkswheneverpossiblewithnetworksthatemitless
radiationatschools,preschools,hospitals,nursinghomes,andotherpublicfacilities.
2.Establishaworkinggroupwhosemandateitistoassessthesenewtechnologiesandtheir
exposurelevels.Withregardtowirelesscommunicationtechnologies,mobileInternetaccess,
andpublichealth,theworkinggroupshallclarifywhichtechnologiesemitlessradiationand
providesustainabletechnologyoptionsand
3.Tostartaneducationandawarenesscampaignthatinformsaboutpossiblehealthrisks,
especiallyregardingtheunborn,infants,children,andadolescentsandthatdevelopsguidelines
forasaferuseofcellphones,smartphones,andWiFi…DiscussionatthePlenarySession,
10June2015(inGerman)>>>///////OfficialFiles,Resolutions(inGerman)
>>>////////PreviousHearingattheParliamentofSouthTyrol,29April2015(inGerman)>>>
Finland:TheRadiationandNuclearSafetyAuthorityissuedrecommendationsforchildrenwhichinclude:
favoringtextmessages,parentslimitingdurationandamountofcalls,theuseofhandsfreedevices,avoiding
callsinalowreceptionareaandkeepingthephoneawayfromthebody.
"Withchildren,wehavereasontobeespeciallycareful,becausethereisnotenoughresearchon
children'smobilephoneuse",accordingtoSTUKresearchdirectorSiskoSalomaa.
Israel:TheIsraeliMinistryOfEducationhasissuedguidelineslimitingWiFiandcellphoneuseinschools.
Preschoolthrough2ndgradehavebannedtheuseofwirelessnetworks.Inthirdandfourthgradeclass
internetisrestrictedto3hoursperweek.
Ahardwireddirectcableconnectionisrequirediftheteacherhasacomputerintheclass.Magnetic
fieldsbelow4mGarebeingreduced.
TheIsraeliSupremeCourtorderedtheIsraeligovernmenttoreplyonceasingWifiinstallations
Inthirdandfourthgradeclassinternetisrestrictedto3hoursperweek.
TheEducationMinistryhasinstructedallschoolstoperformradiationtests.
Israel'sMinisterofHealthRabiLitzmanstatedthathesupportsabanonWiFiinschools.
Ahardwireddirectcableconnectionisrequirediftheteacherhasacomputerintheclass.
GovernmentcreatedtheWebpageNationalInformationCtrforNonIonizingRadiation
ReadtheISRAEL2015RFSafetyReport
Switzerland:TheGoverningCouncilofThurgauCanton2008“TheGoverningCouncilrecommendsfor
schoolstoforgotheuseofwirelessnetworkswhenthestructuralmakeupofagivenschoolbuildingallowsfor
awirednetwork.“
Germany:TheGermanFederalMinistryforRadiationProtectionstates,”supplementaryprecautionary
measuressuchaswiredcablealternativesaretobepreferredtotheWLANsystem.”
Bavaria:TheStateMinistryofEducationandCulturalAffairs:“ForprecautionaryreasonstheFederal
OfficeforRadiationProtectionrecommendsforschoolsthatifawirelessnetworkisusedtoplaceits
componentsinsuitablelocationsandtoprefertheuseofwirednetworksolutionswheneverpossible.”
In2007Parliamentrecommendationtoallschoolstonot
installwirelessLANnetworks.
Frankfurt:“InFrankfurt’sschoolstherewillbenowirelessnetworksintheshortormidterm.TheLocal
14
EducationAuthoritydidnotwishtoconducta“largescalehumanexperiment,”saidMichaelDamian,
spokespersonoftheHeadoftheSchoolDepartmentJuttaEbeling.
Austria:"TheofficialadviceofthePublicHealthDepartmentoftheSalzburgRegionisnottouseWLANand
DECTinSchoolsorKindergartens.”GerdOberfeld,MD.
TheAustrianMedicalSocietyhasissuedcellphonesafetyguidelinesstatingthatcellphonesshouldbe
usedforasshortofatimeaspossibleandthatchildrenunder16shouldnotusecellphonesatall.
TheyalsostatethatwirelessLANleadstohighmicrowaveexposure.
UnitedKingdom:TheUKNationalHealthServiceoffersspecificRecommendationsforchildrenandcell
phonesas“childrenarethoughttobeathigherriskofhealthimplications”.
“Childrenshouldonlyusemobilephonesforessentialpurposesandkeepallcallsshort.“
Forthepublictheyhave“recommendationstohelploweranypotentiallongtermrisks”whichinclude
keepingcallsshort,keepphoneawayfromthebodyonstandbymode,onlyuseitwhenthereceptionis
stronganduseaphonewithanexternalantenna.
EuropeanEnvironmentAgency:“Allreasonablemeasurestobetakentoreduceexposuresto
electromagneticfields,especiallyradiofrequenciesfrommobilephonesandparticularlytheexposuresto
childrenandyoungadults.Currentexposurelimitstobereconsidered.”
India:2012TheMinistryofCommunicationsandInformationTechnologyissuedEMFguidelineswithnew
ExposureLimitsloweredto1/10oftheICNIRPlevel,SARlabelingonphones.
Officialguidelinesforcellphoneuseinclude:Headsets,Speakerphones,limitingcelluse,increasing
distancefromdevices,andchoosinglandlines.
2013:SupremeCourtofIndiaupheldtheHighCourtoftheStateofRajasthandecisiontoremoveall
celltowersfromthevicinityofschools,hospitalsandplaygroundsbecauseofradiation“hazardousto
life.”
TheMinistryofCommunicationsandInformationTechnologyhasanEMFwebpage
ZillaParishadordersremovalofallcellphonetowersnearschoolscitingexposureto“harmful
radiation”.
Russia:TheRussianNationalCommitteeonNonIonizingRadiationProtectionhasrepeatedlywarnedabout
electromagneticradiationimpactsonchildrenandrecommendedWiFinotbeusedinschools.
“Thus,forthefirsttimeinthehumanhistory,childrenusingmobiletelecommunicationsalongwiththe
adultpopulationareincludedintothehealthriskgroupduetotheRFEMFexposure.”
“Inchildren,theamountofsocalledstemcellsislargerthaninadultsandthestemcellswereshownto
bethemostsensitivetoRFEMFexposure.”
“Itisreasonabletosetlimitsonmobiletelecommunicationsusebychildrenandadolescents,including
banonalltypesofadvertisementofmobiletelecommunicationsforchildren.”
Decision of Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 2008,
"Children and Mobile Phones: The Health of the Following Generations is in Danger”
Canada:HealthCanadaoffers“PracticalAdvice”onreducingexposuretowirelessradiation.
Recommendations:1.Limitthelengthofcellphonecalls,2.Replacecellphonecallswithtext,use
"handsfree"devicesand3.Encouragechildrenundertheageof18tolimittheircellphoneusage
2015:NationalBillC648IntroducedintotheHouseOfCommons,“AnActRespectingthePreventionof
PotentialHealthRisksFromRadiofrequencyElectromagneticRadiation”wouldrequiremanufacturers
15
ofallwirelessdevicestoplacespecifichealthwarninglabelsclearlyonpackaging,orfacedaily
penalties/finesand/orimprisonment.
CanadianParliamentStandingCommitteeonHealthoftheHouseofCommonsissuedareport
"RadioFrequencyElectromagneticRadiationandtheHealthofCanadians"onJune,2015after
holdingpublichearingsregardingHealthCanada’sSafetyCode6recommendedlimits.Theymade12
recommendationsincludinganawarenesscampaignonreducingexposures,improvedinformation
collectingandpolicymeasuresregardingthemarketingofradiationemittingdevicestochildrenunder
theageof14,"inordertoensuretheyareawareofthehealthrisksandhowtheycanbeavoided."
Resolution1815:In2011TheParliamentaryAssemblyoftheCouncilofEuropeissued
ThePotentialDangersofElectromagneticFieldsandTheirEffectontheEnvironment.
AcalltoEuropeangovernmentsto“takeallreasonablemeasures”toreduceexposuretoelectromagnetic
fields“particularlytheexposuretochildrenandyoungpeoplewhoseemtobemostatriskfromhead
tumours.”
TheResolutioncallsformemberstatesto:
Implement“informationcampaignsabouttheriskofbiologicaleffectsontheenvironmentandhuman
health,especiallytargetingchildrenandyoungpeopleofreproductiveage.“
“Reconsiderthescientificbasisforthepresentstandardsonexposuretoelectromagneticfieldsset
bytheInternationalCommissiononNonIonisingRadiationProtection,whichhaveserious
limitations,andapplyALARAprinciples,coveringboththermaleffectsandtheathermicorbiological
effectsofelectromagneticemissionsorradiation.”
“Forchildreningeneral,andparticularlyinschoolsandclassrooms,givepreferencetowiredInternet
connections,andstrictlyregulatetheuseofmobilephonesbyschoolchildrenonschoolpremises.”
UnitedStates:Legislationhasbeenintroducedatthestateandnationallevel.SomeCommunitieshave
issuedproclamations,resolutionsandandstartedinitiativestoinformthepublicofwirelesshealthissues.
2014California,Berkeley:May12,2015BerkeleyAdoptedtheCellPhone"RighttoKnow"Ordinance
onaUnanimousVote.Berkeleyisthefirstcityinthenationtorequirecellphoneretailerstoprovide
thosewhopurchaseanewphoneaninformationalfactsheetwhichinformsbuyerstoreadtheuser
manualtolearnthecellphone’sminimumseparationdistancefromthebody.
2014NewYork:WirelessRouterLabelinginallSuffolkPublicbuildings:12/2014TheSuffolk
CountyLegislaturepassedlegislationtorequireallcountybuildingstopostnoticesthatwirelessrouters
areinusesuchas,"Notice:Wirelesstechnologyinuse."Theresolution,sponsoredbyLegis.William
Spencer(aphysician),warnsthateverywirelessdeviceemitsradiofrequencyradiationormicrowave
radiation.Itnotesthatstudies"thathavelookedattheeffectsoflowlevelRFRradiationonhumancells
andDNAhavebeeninconclusive."
2015NEWMassachusettsjustproposedBillS1222:AnActcreatingaspecialcommissiontostudy
thehealthimpactsofelectromagneticfieldsandBillH2007:AnActrelativetoaspecialcommissionto
studyelectricandmagneticfields.BillsStillinProcessasofJuly23,2015.
2014Maryland,Greenbelt:TheGreenbeltMarylandCityCouncilvotedunanimouslyonNovember24,
2014toalertcitizensaboutthefineprintwarningsandpossiblehealthrisksofcellphonesandwireless
devices,tosendtheFCCChairmanaletterurgingtheadoptionof“radiationstandardsthatwillprotect
humanhealthandsafety.”Theyalsovotedtoopposecelltowersonschoolgrounds.
2012Wyoming:JacksonHoleissuedaProclamationofCellPhoneSafetywhichcitesconcern
overlongtermhealtheffectsaswellastheincreasedrisktheradiationposestochildren.
2012Florida:PembrokePines,passedResolution3362expressingtheCity's"UrgentConcerns"
16
aboutWirelessRadiationandHealthandwhichencouragescitizenstoreadtheirmanualsand
presentsinformationonhowtoreduceexposurebyusingaheadsetorspeakerphone.Jimmy
Gonzalez,anattorneywhohaddevelopedbraincancerafterheavycelluse,initiallypetitionedthe
Commission.WatchtheVideoofhispowerfultestimonyhere.
2010California,SanFrancisco:CellPhoneRadiation(HowtoReduceExposures)Webpagelaunched.
2010California:BurlingameCaliforniaCityCouncilvotedtoincludecellphonesafetyguidelinesin
theirHealthyLivinginBurlingameinitiative(WHOclassificationandconsumerprecautions).
2010Maine,Portland:MayorMavodenes,Jr.declaredOctober“CellPhoneAwarenessMonth”
ProposedLegislation
2014,CityofBerkeleyCaliforniaCityManagerandCommunityHealthCommissioninitiatesactionforwarning
stickersoncellphoneboxes.
2012TheCellPhoneRighttoKnowActH.R.6358wasintroducedreceivingstrongsupportfrommany
organizationsincludingtheAmericanAcademyofPediatrics.(AAPLetterhere.)Thislegislationcalledforlabelson
mobiledevicesatpointofsale,acomprehensivenationalresearchprogramtostudywhetherexposuretowireless
devicescausesadversebiologicaleffectsdirectedbyNIEHSandtheEPAandexposurelevelregulation.
2014TheMaineLD1013"TheWirelessInformationAct"passedtheStateSenateandHousebutthenfailedto
passthesecondvote.TheBillrequiresmanufacturer'sinformationonradiofrequencyexposurebevisibleonthe
outsideofthecellphone'sproductpackaging.
2014HawaiiSenateBillSB2571wasintroducedcallingforawarninglabelencouragingconsumerstofollowthe
enclosedproductsafetyguidelinestoreduceexposuretoradiationthatmaybehazardoustotheirhealth.
TheSanFranciscoCellPhoneRighttoKnowOrdinancewassignedin2011requiringcellphoneretailersto
distributeaneducationalsheetcreatedbytheSanFranciscoDepartmentofEnvironmentthatexplains
radiofrequencyemissionsfromcellphonesandhowconsumerscanminimizetheirexposure.TheCTIAsuedthecity
andsettledwiththeCitytoblockimplementationoftheOrdinanceinexchangeforawaiverofattorneys'fees.The
CityCellPhoneRadiationWebpageremainsonline.
SB932California,HM32,NewMexico,HB1408Pennsylvania,andSB679Oregon.
ParentTeacherOrganizationsTakingAction
2014UnitedFederationofTeachers(teachers,nursesandprofessionalsworkinginNewYorkCity).
NewWirelessRadiationWebpagestates,“Wirelessradiationisemittedbythemyriadofwirelessdeviceswe
encountereveryday.Itwasoncethoughttoberelativelyharmless.However,wenowknowthatwirelessradiation
cancausenonthermalbiologicaleffectsaswell,includingdamagetocellsandDNA,evenatlowlevels.
ResourcespostedontheirsiteincludeDr.Moskowitz’ReducingYourExposuretoWirelessRadiationandthe
BabySafeProjectbrochureWhatYouNeedtoKnowAboutWirelessRadiationandYourBaby.“Takingcertain
precautionsaroundwirelessradiationisappropriateforourmostvulnerablepopulations,includingpregnantwomen.”
2014NewYorkStateTeacher’sUnionNYSUT:Afederationofmorethan1,200localunions.
NYSUThostedaWebinar:Risksofwirelesstechnologiesandprotectingchildrenandstaffinschools.
2013CanadianTeacherFederation’sBrief(200,000elementaryandsecondaryschoolteachers)
“CTFisconcernedaboutthelackofdefinitiveresearchregardingtheadversehealtheffectsofWiFi.
“WeproposeaprudentapproachtotheuseofWiFi,especiallywherechildrenarepresent.”
“WerecommendaneducationprogramregardingtherelativesafetyofWiFiexposureandthatappropriate
resourcesbedevelopedtoeducatethepublicregardingwaystoavoidpotentialexposurerisksofWiFiaccess
pointsanddevices.”
“PedagogicalneedscouldbemetinschoolswithanapproachthatlimitsexposuretoWiFi.”
2013UnitedTeachersofLosAngeles,representing40,000teachersandstaff
Resolutionpassed:“ImovethatUTLAwillabidebycurrentNationalNEAPolicyforEnvironmentallySafeSchools
whichstatesthatallemployeesandstakeholdersshouldbeinformedwhentherearechangesintheirexposureto
environmentalhazardsincludingelectromagneticradiationandthatallstakeholdersandthepublicshouldbenotified
17
ofanyactualandpotentialhazards.”
2013ElementaryTeacher'sFederationofOntarioover76,000teachers
LabelthelocationOfWiFiaccesspoints.
DevelopahazardcontrolprogramrelatedtowirelessmicrowaveradiationthroughJHSC.
2012TheOntarioEnglishCatholicTeachersAssociation(45,000Ontarioteachers)
RecommendsawiredinfrastructureasWIFI“maypresentapotentialHealthandSafetyriskorhazardinthe
workplace...Thesafetyofthistechnologyhasnotthoroughlybeenresearchedandthereforetheprecautionary
principleandprudentavoidanceofexposureshouldbepracticed.”
“TheNationalEducationAssociationbelievesthatalleducationalfacilitiesmusthavehealthyindoor
airquality,besmokefree,besafefromenvironmentalandchemicalhazards,andbesafefromhazardous
electromagneticfields.”SectionC19oftheNEA20132014Resolutions
2013BCTeachersFederationadoptedWirelessResolutionsandProposedResolutions
“TheBCTFsupportsmemberswhoaresufferingfromElectromagneticHypersensitivitybyensuringtheirmedical
needsareaccommodatedintheworkplace.”
ProposedResolutions“theWorldHealthOrganization'sclassificationofradiofrequency/electromagneticfields
emittedbywirelessdevicesasa2Bpossiblecancerrisktohumans;thattheBCTFensuresallteachershavethe
righttoworkinasafeenvironment,includingtherighttoworkinaWiFi/wirelessfreeenvironment.”
RecommendationtotheMinistryofEducationthatschoolboards“beginimmediateinstallationofon/offswitchesfor
WiFiroutersinschools,therebyreducingmicrowaveradiationexposureandreducinghealthriskstomembers,
and/orprovidesaferEthernetcablesorfibreoptics”.
2013TheBCConfederationofParentAdvisoryCouncils(BCCPAC)of821AdvisoryCouncilsrepresentingover
500,000parentsinBritishColumbiapassedtworesolutions.
Resolution17"callsoneachBoardofEducationtohaveonepublicschoolateacheducationlevelthatisfreeof
WiFi,cordlessphonesandcellphones.Thisschoolwillonlybeequippedwithwiredcomputersandwired
telephonesforpersonal,educationalandadministrativepurposes."
Resolution18callsonBoardsofEducationto"ceasetoinstallWiFiandotherwirelessnetworksinschoolswhere
othernetworkingtechnologyisfeasible."Passedwithaclearmajority.
2010UKVOICE;TheUnionforEducationProfessionals20,000members
"VoicehasadvocatedthatnewWiFisystemsshouldnotbeinstalledinschools,thatexistingsystemsshouldbe
turnedoffwhennotrequiredandthatschoolsshouldconsiderwhethertheyreallyneedtouseWiFi,whichwas
developedtofacilitateInternetaccessonthemoveratherthantobeusedasaconvenientalternativetocablesin
dedicatedITfacilities.”
2010GreaterVictoriaTeachers'Association
WiFifreezonesshouldbeavailable.
On/OffroutersrecommendedandrecordanyadverseWiFihealtheffects.
Minimalornonusewithinelementaryschools.
18
DOCTORSANDSCIENTISTSAPPEALFORSTRICTERWIRELESSTECHNOLOGYREGULATION
“NumerousrecentscientificpublicationshaveshownthatEMFaffectslivingorganismsatlevelswellbelow
mostinternationalandnationalguidelines.Effectsincludeincreasedcancerrisk,cellularstress,increasein
harmfulfreeradicals,geneticdamages,structuralandfunctionalchangesofthereproductivesystem,learning
andmemorydeficits,neurologicaldisorders,andnegativeimpactsongeneralwellbeinginhumans.”
Over200scientistsfrom39nationsintheInternationalEMFScientistAppeal
Thesescientistshavecollectivelypublishedover2,000peerreviewedpapersonthebiologicalorhealth
effectsofnonionizingradiation.Insummary,theInternationalEMFScientistAppeal
callsupontheUnitedNations,
theWHO,andtheUNMemberStatesto:
addresstheemergingpublichealthcrisisrelatedtocellphones,wirelessdevices,wirelessutilitymeters
andwirelessinfrastructureinneighborhoods;and
urgethattheUnitedNationsEnvironmentalProgramme(UNEP)initiateanassessmentofalternativesto
currentexposurestandardsandpracticesthatcouldsubstantiallylowerhumanexposuresto
nonionizingradiation.
HoferAppeal2005
HelsinkiAppeal2005
ParishKirchnerAppeal2005
SaarlanderAppeal2005
StockacherAppeal2005
VancouverSchoolResolution
2005
BeneventoResolution2006
AllgäuerAppeal2006
WiMaxAppeal2006
Schlüchternerappeal
BrusselsAppeal2007
VeniceResolution2008
PortoAlegreResolution2009
EuropeanParliament
EMFResolution2009
DutchAppeal2009
Int’lAppealofWürzburg2010
CopenhagenResolution2010
SeletunConsensusStatement
2010
RussianNationalCommitteeon
NonIonizingRadiationProtection2011
PotenzaPicenaResolution2011
WorldHealthOrganization2011
AustrianMedicalAssociation2012
ResolutiononElectromagneticHealth
2012
BritishDoctorInitiative2013
BabySafeProject:JointStatementon
PregnancyandWirelessRadiation2014
CanadianDoctorsDeclarationtoHealth
Canada2014
ScientificDeclarationtoHealthCanada
(InternationalDoctors)2014
InternationalScientistsAppealtoU.N.
toProtectHumansandWildlifefrom
ElectromagneticFieldsandWireless
Technology2015
Over200Scientists
19
SourcesofWirelessMicrowaveRadiationinSchools
Manyschoolsystemsarebringingwifienabledsystemsintoschools.WirelessiPads,tablets,computers,
laptops,printers,andDECTcordlessphonesemitradiation.Inaddition,schoolsystemsareenactingBring
YourOwnDevice
policieswhichresultincellphonesandahostofotherwirelessdevicesinuseinclassrooms
onadailybasis.
Whetherfromatablet,laptoporcellphone
WiFieffectivelysendsandreceivesmicrowaveradiation
ThepublishedradiationlevelofmobiledevicesismeasuredwithastandardizedtestcalledSpecificAbsorption
Rate(SAR).AniPadonWiFi/3GhasanSARof0.761.19W/kg,comparedtotheSARofaniPhoneon
GSM/CDMAat0.5471.18W/kgwhenheldimmediatelyagainsttheear.
Currentguidelinesdonotconsiderthecombinedradiationexposurefrom
differentwirelessdevicesinoperationatthesametime.
AstudentisexposedtoradiationfromFOURsources:
1.Thestudent’spersonaldevices(tabletandcellphone).
2.Thedevicesofalltheothernearbyusers.
3.Otherfixedwirelessdevicesinthevicinity(routers,printers,wirelessmouse,etc.).
4.Transmittersoutside
theschoolbuilding,suchasacelltower.
Current18yearoldguidelinesaresetonlytoavoidheatanddonottakeintoaccountstudiesshowing
numerousnonthermaleffects
USAGuidelinesavoidimmediateacutethermalrisks
30minutes
CanadianGuidelinesavoidacutethermalrisks
6Minutes
OneSchoolYearforachild
1,080hours
KindergartentoHighschoolgraduation
14,040hours
Totalcellphonecalltimetiedwithincreasedriskofgliomas(braincancer)more
thandoubledinepidemiologicalstudiescitedbytheWorldHealthOrganizations
InternationalAgencyfortheResearchonCancer’sMonographonRFFields.
1,640hours

“WewillnotgetridoftheInternetorcomputers.Weshouldnotignore,however,theenlargingbodyofscience
thatpointstorealthreatstopublichealthand,especially,ourchildren’ssafetyandwellbeing.Thebest
approachisprecautionary.Reducetheriskbyreducingthemicrowaveemissions.Itisourobligationas
physiciansandparentstoprotectourchildren.Theyarethefutureandourlega
cy.”
CindyRussellMD,VPEnvironmentalHealthoftheSantaClaraMedicalAssociation,fromher
publishedarticle“ShallowMinds:HowtheInternetandWiFiCanAffectLearning.”
20
TheFinePrintManufacturerWarnings
Allmanufacturersofwirelessdeviceshavewarningswhichdescribetheminimumdistancedevicesmustbe
keptawayfromusersinordertonotexceedtheastestedlimitsforexposuretowirelessradiation.For
example,theFCCsetsexposurelimitsforlaptopsandtabletsthataretested20cmawayfromthebody.
Blackberry Bold 9930: “Keep the BlackBerry device at least 0.59 in. (15 mm) from your body
(including the abdomen of pregnant women and the lower abdomen of teenagers) when the BlackBerry
device is turned on and connected to the wireless network.”
iPads: ”to be sure that human exposure to RF energy does not exceed the FCC, IC, and European
Union guidelines, always follow these instructions and precautions: Orient the device in portrait mode
with the Home button at the bottom of the display, or in landscape mode with the cellular antenna
away from your body or other objects.
Samsung 3G Laptop: “Usage precautions during 3G connection : Keep safe distance from pregnant
women’s stomach or from lower stomach of teenagers. Body worn operation: Important safety
information regarding radiofrequency radiation (RF) exposure.To ensure compliance with RF exposure
guidelines the Notebook PC must be used with a minimum of 20.8 cm antenna separation from the
body.”
X Box 360 Gaming Console: To comply with IC RF exposure compliance requirements, the
antenna used for this transmitter must be installed to provide a separation distance of at least 20 cm
from all persons and must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or
transmitter.
iPhone 4: " To be sure that human exposure does not exceed the FCC guidelines, always follow these
instructions... keep iPhone at least 15 mm (5/8 inch) away from the body, and only use carrying cases,
belt clips, or holders that do not have metal parts and that maintain at least 15 mm (5/8) inch
separation between the iPhone and the body." To view the information on your iPhone go to Settings >
General > About > Legal > RF Exposure.
Belkin WIFI Router Manual: “Caution: Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation: The device shall be
used in such a manner that the potential for human contact normal operation is minimized. This
equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled environment. This
equipment should be installed and operated with a minimum distance of 20cm between the radiator
and your body.”
HP Printer: “In order to avoid the possibility of exceeding the FCC radio frequency exposure limits,
human proximity to the antenna shall not be less than 20 cm (8 inches) during normal operation.”
Baby Monitor Motorola MBP33: The Baby unit shall be installed and used such that parts of the
user's body other than the hands are maintained at a distance of approximately 20 cm (8 inches) or
more.
21
FederalRegulationsandMobileDevices
“...Mobiledevicesaretransmittersdesignedtobeusedinsuchawaythataseparationdistanceofatleast20
centimetersisnormallymaintainedbetweenthetransmitter'sradiatingstructure(s)andthebodyoftheuseror
nearbypersons.”FCC,BULLETIN65,1997
WhyaretheseFinePrintWarningsimportant?
Ifthesedistancesarenotmaintained,peoplecanbeexposedtoradiationatlevelsthatexceedthecurrent
FCCstandard,potentiallyexposingthemtothermal(heating)
exposures.TheSARforlaptops,printers,
routersandtabletsshouldbelessthan1.6W/kgforany1gramoftissue,asmeasured20cm(~8inches)
fromthedevice.Becauseoftheinversesquarelawifdevicesareusedcloserthan8inchestothebody,
exposuresgrowexponentially.Thus,at5inchesitcouldincrease16fold,andatlessthanoneinch(i.e.
onyourlap
)itcouldincrease100fold.
Mostpeople,especiallychildrenandyoungadults,carryandusetheirwirelessdevicesdirectlyagainsttheir
bodies.Consumersdonotknowthatusingalaptoponyourlap,clutchinganipadtoyourchestortuckinga
cellphoneinyourpocketorbraispotentiallyunsafeandcouldresultintheusergettingradiationexposures
thatexceedthestandard.Sincewarningsaredeepinthelegalfineprintofmanualsandonmanufacturer
websites,theyareoftenoverlooked.
Thiswasconfirmedinthe2012GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)study,
whichstated,“Someconsumersmayusemobilephonesagainstthebody,whichFCCdoesnot
currentlytest,andcouldresultinRFenergyexposurehigherthantheFCClimit.”Forexample,cell
phonesareNOTtestedtouchingtheear,butwithaspacebetweentheearandthephone.
WhatCanSchoolsDo?
BestPractice:
KeepBYODDevicesonAirplaneModewithWIFIOFF.
InformStudents,ParentsandStaffofFCCFinePrintWarningsonDevices
Staffandstudentsandparentsneedtobeinformedofthisinformationconcerningfederalregulations.This
informationcanbeincorporatedintotheStudentHandbookanddetailedintheBringYourOwnDevicePolicies
thatmanyschoolsaredeveloping.Schoolscanteachstudentsandstaffwaystominimizeexposuresand
developpoliciesthatminimizeradiationexposuresfromthedevicesstudentsbringin.
ImportantNote:Federalguidelinesweresetonlyforthermaleffects.Biologicaleffectsarenotconsideredin
theseguidelines.Furthermore,compliancewithcurrentguidelinesdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatchildrenand
pregnantwomenareprotectedfromthermaleffectsastheirabsorptionrateswerenotconsideredduringthe
developmentofstandards.Researchisraisingserioussafetyissuesconcerningthesecurrentguidelines.
22
CurrentExposureGuidelinesWereNotSetToProtectChildren
“Parentswouldnevergivetheirchildrenpesticidesorjetfueltoplay.Theseagentsarealsoclassifiedalong
withcellphoneandwirelessradiationaspossiblehumancarcinogensbytheWHO.Aroundtheworldweare
payingthepricenowforhavingdelayedactionsontobaccoandasbestosafterinsistingonhumanharmbefore
takingaction.Wecannotaffordtowaitfordefinitiveproofofhumanrisksfromradiationemittedbywireless
transmittingdevicesbeforetakingstepstoreduceexposures.Theabsenceofevidenceofhazardisnotproof
ofsafety.”DevraDavisPhDMPH,PresidentofEnvironmentalHealthTrust
1.CurrentUSandCanadianRadioFrequencyExposureStandardsareInadequatetoprotecthuman
health.Longtermsafetytestingwasneverdone.AmericanAcademyofPediatricsandotherphysiciansare
raisingseriousconcerns.
“TheInternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer(IARC),partoftheUnitedNations’WorldHealth
Organization,saidinJune2011thatafamilyoffrequenciesthatincludesmobilephoneemissionsis“possibly
carcinogenictohumans.”...Thesestudiesandothersclearlydemonstratetheneedforfurtherresearchinto
thisareaandhighlighttheimportanceofreassessingcurrentpolicytodetermineifitisadequatelyprotectiveof
humanhealth.”
Dr.ThomasK.McInerny,PresidentoftheAmericanAcademyofPediatrics,intheAAPSubmissiontothe
FCConAugust29,2013callingformoreprotectiveguidelinesintheUSA.
“TheRoyalSocietypanelhasfailedinit’sobligationtothepublic.Itignoredrecentevidencethatwireless
radiationisaprobablecarcinogen,”saidDr.AnthonyMiller,ProfessorEmeritusoftheDallaLana
SchoolofPublicHealthinhisreviewoftheRoyalSociety’s2014SafetyCode6Review.
2.Currenttestingproceduresdonotconsidersmallersizeofchildrenandteenbrains.
TheWorldHealthOrganizationcitesthestudy,“ExposureLimits:Theunderestimationofabsorbedcell
phoneradiation,especiallyinchildren,”(Gandhietal,2011),whichdocumentshowthe
industrydesignedprocessforevaluatingmicrowaveradiationfromphonesresultsinchildrenabsorbing
twicethecellphoneradiationtotheirheads,uptotripleintheirbrain’shippocampusand
hypothalamus,greaterabsorptionintheireyes,andasmuchas10timesmoreintheirbonemarrow
whencomparedtoadults.
3.Currentexposurestandardsweresettoprotectagainstheatinginjuryonly.Theydonotprotect
againstothermechanismsofactionnoragainstchroniclowlevelexposuressuchasdailyexposureto
wirelessradiation.
”TheFCC‘scurrentexposureguidelines,aswellofthoseoftheInstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers
(IEEE)andtheInternationalCommissiononNonionizingRadiationProtection(ICNRP),arethermallybased,
and
donotapplytochronic,nonthermalexposuresituations
.Theyarebelievedtoprotectagainstinjurythat
maybecausedbyacuteexposuresthatresultintissueheatingorelectricshockandburn…
”NorbertHankin
oftheEPA2002
DIDYOUKNOW?
1. Microwaveabsorptiontestsusealiquidfilledplasticheadrepresentinga200poundman.
2. TheFDAandtheEPAhavenotdoneacurrentHumanHealthRiskAssessment.
3. TheFCCreviewofUSRFguidelinesincludesmorethan900submissionstothedocket.
23
ConcernsAboutCurrentMicrowaveExposureGuidelines
CountrieslikeSwitzerland,Italy,France,Austria,Luxembourg,Bulgaria,Poland,Hungary,Israel,Russiaand
Chinahavesetexposurelimits100to10,000timeslessthantheUSAandCanada
"TheelectromagneticradiationstandardsusedbytheFederalCommunicationsCommissioncontinuetobe
basedonthermalheating,acriterionnownearly30yearsoutofdateandinapplicabletoday…Laboratory
studieshaveraisedconcernsaboutimpactsoflowlevel,nonthermalelectromagneticradiation...on
domesticchickenembryoswithsomelethalresults”
WillieTaylor,USDepartmentoftheInterior,2014Letter.
“TheFCC[submissionsonwirelessradiation]..revealwhatweknowaboutwirelessradiationhealtheffects,
andwhyweneedtostrengthenregulationsandprovideprecautionarywarningstothepublic.”Dr.Joel
Moskowitz,SchoolofPublicHealth,UCBerkeleyCA
"TheFCCadmitsitsownlackofexpertiseinthefield.ButtheoverlapoffederalagencyresponsibilitiesforRF
radiationprotectionandthemerelyadvisorystatusoftheRadiofrequencyInteragencyWorkGroupoften
leavesleadershipunclearandencouragesapassthebuckattitude…”TheCitiesofBostonand
Philadelphia11/18/2013SubmissiontotheFCCDocket1834,
“Currentstandardsdonotaccountforchildren'shigherRFexposuresandgreaterhealthrisks...TheFCC
shouldrejectclaimsthatthereisnoevidencepointingtopotentialharmfromexposuretocellphoneradiation.
TherearenownumerousstudiessuggestingthatRFexposureatcurrentexposurelevelscouldhavenegative
healtheffectsraisingquestionsabouttheadequacyofcurrentstandards.”
TheEnvironmentalWorkingGroup2013SubmissiontotheFCC.
InCanada,SafetyCode6thatcoverswirelessradiationis“anarchaicfederalguidelinethatisallowing
Canada’sgloballyenviedhealthcaresystemtoignoreourbiggestmodernhealththreat…Thereisnothing
lessthanthefutureofourchildrenatstake.”FrankClegg,FormerMicrosoftCanadaPresidentand
founderofCanadiansforSafeTechnology.
"...theFCC'scellphoneemissionlevelsandfederalstandardsarebasedsolelyonradiationabsorbedby
adults.TheFCC's1.6WKgSARstandardismodeledonanadulthead.Thisexposurestandardleavesvery
littlesafetymargintoaccountfortheextrasensitivityofchildren.Asaresult,theFCCstandardsdonothing
toensurethatachildusingacellphonedoesnotabsorbanamountofradiationabovethemaximum
allowedlimits.
"TheCityofSanFrancisco's11/1/2013SubmissiontotheFCC.
HealthorganizationsthatcalledontheUSFCCin2013toreevaluatecurrentexposureguidelinesonradio
frequencyradiationinclude:TheBreastCancerFund,HealthyChildHealthyWorld,BlackWomenfor
Wellness,BreastCancerAction,TheCenterforHealthEnvironmentandJustice,TeensTurningGreen,
ScienceandEnvironmentalHealthNetwork,CaliforniaBrainTumorAssociationandEnvironmentalHealthTrust.
“ManybioeffectsandadversehealtheffectsoccuratfarlowerlevelsofRFexposurethanthosethatcause
measurableheating;someeffectsareshowntooccuratseveralhundredthousandtimesbelowtheexisting
publicsafetylimits,whicharesetbasedonthefallaciousassumptionthattherearenoadversehealtheffects
atexposuresthatdonotcauseeasilymeasurableheating.”Prof.DavidO.Carpenter,MD,Directorofthe
InstituteforHealthandtheEnvironment,UniversityatAlbany,coauthoroftheBioinitiaveReport2012.
onabeltorinapo
24
U.S.President’sCancerPanelVoicesConcern
The2009U.S.President’sCancerPanelpointedtocellphonesandotherwirelesstechnologiesaspotentialcausesof
cancer.Initsrecommendations,thepanelstated:
“Also,incidenceofbraincancer,particularlyglioma,andothertypesofcancerhasincreasedconcomitantlywithuseof
cellphonesandothermodesofwirelesscommunication.Althoughnotallofthedataareconclusive,thisareashould
receiveattentionfromtheU.S.Government.”
Thepanelrecommendedthatpeoplereducetheirusagebymakingfewerand
shortercalls,usinghandsfreedevicessothatthephoneisnotagainstthehead,andrefrainingfromkeepingaphonecket.
“Evenifcellphonesraisetheriskofcancerslightly,somanypeopleareexposedthatitcouldbealargepublichealth
burden.”
–Dr.TedSchettler,DirectoroftheScienceandEnvironmentalHealthNetwork.
TheUSAEPAonWirelessRadiation.Wirelesstechnologyisstillrelativelynew,andworldwide,
researcherscontinuetostudytheeffectsoflongtermexposure.Todate,thescientificevidencelinking
longtermuseofcellphonestocancerorotherhealtheffectsisnotconclusive.Moreresearchisneededto
clarifythequestionofsafety.
“EPAWirelessRadiationWebpageon3/2014
“ScientistscontinuetostudytheeffectsoflongtermexposuretolowlevelsofRF.Ifyouareconcerned,youcantakethese
simplestepstoreduceexposuretoRFradiation:
LimituseReducethenumberandlengthofyourcallsortimespentonawirelessdevice.
UsehandsfreedevicesUsinghandsfreedeviceskeepsmobilephonesawayfromyourhead.Increasedistancebetween
thewirelessdeviceandyourbody.’EPAWebpage8/20/14
"Alongwithmanyorganizationsworldwide,werecommendcautionincellphoneuse.IfRFdoescausehealthproblems,kids
whousecellphonesmayhaveahigherchanceofdevelopingtheseproblemsinthefuture.”TheCDCwebsiteprovidestips
tothepubliconhowto"reduceradiofrequencyradiationnearyourbody."CDCWebsiteJune8,2014.Subsequently
modifiedonAugust20,2014toremovethefirstsentence.
“We don’t know for sure if RF radiation from cell phones can cause health problems years later. The
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF radiation as a “possible human
carcinogen.” (A carcinogen is an agent that causes cancer.) Scientists are continuing to study the possible
health effects of cell phone use. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) is currently looking
into how cell phones may affect: Some types of tumors, Our eyes, Sleep, Memory, Headaches, Acoustic
Neuroma. CDCWebpage8/20/2014
“BeingexposedtosomekindsofEMFmayhavesomebadeffectson
humans,butscientistsdonotknowforsure.Becauseofthis,NIEHS
recommendsthatpeoplelearnpracticalwaysofreducingexposuresto
EMFs.”NationalInstituteofEnvironmentalHealthSciencesWebpage
“There is consensus that additional research is warranted to address gaps in knowledge, such as the
effects of cell phone use over the long-term and on pediatric populations. The World Health
Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer Classified Radiofrequency Fields as Possibly
Carcinogenic to Humans.” The FDA
"The electromagnetic radiation standards used by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) continue
to be based on thermal heating, a criterion now nearly 30 years out of date and inapplicable today." - The
U.S. Department of Interior in a 2014 Letter.
25
THECELLPHONEREPORT:TECHNOLOGYEXPOSURES,HEALTHEFFECTS,
ENVIRONMENT&HUMANHEALTH,INC.,2012
JohnWargo,Ph.D.,professorofEnvironmentalRiskandPolicyatYaleUniversityandleadauthorof
thereport,said,“Thescientificevidenceissufficientlyrobustshowingthatcellulardevicespose
significanthealthriskstochildrenandpregnantwomen.Theweightoftheevidencesupportsstronger
precautionaryregulationbythefederalgovernment.Thecellularindustryshouldtakeimmediatestepsto
reduceemissionofelectromagneticradiation(EMR)fromphonesandavoidmarketingtheirproductsto
children.
”
RecommendationstotheFederalGovernment:
Setexposurestandardstoprotecthumanhealth.
Evaluatecumulativeexposuretoradiofrequencyradiationinpregnantwomenandchildren.Devices
thatcontributetototalexposureincludecellphones,cordlessDECT(DigitalElectronicCordless
Telecommunications)phones,wirelesshandsets,wirelessheadsets,wirelessrouters,Bluetooth
devices,wirelessalarmsystems,etc.
RecommendationstoIndividuals
Reduceyourexposuretowirelessradiationsources.
LearnaboutEMFemissionsfromotherwirelessdevicesinyourlife,includingcomputers,laptops,
routers,DECTphones,etc.
Trytominimizeyourcumulativeexposuretothesedevices.
ACOG:EnvironmentalChemicalsHarmReproductiveHealth
ObGynsAdvocateforPolicyChangestoProtectHealth
September23,2013
Washington,DC
Toxicchemicalsintheenvironmentharmourabilitytoreproduce,negativelyaffectpregnancies,andare
associatedwithnumerousotherlongtermhealthproblems,accordingtoTheAmericanCollegeofObstetriciansand
Gynecologists(ACOG)andtheAmericanSocietyforReproductiveMedicine(ASRM).InajointCommitteeOpinion,The
CollegeandASRMurgeObGynstoadvocateforgovernmentpolicychangestoidentifyandreduceexposuretotoxic
environmentalagents.
“LawmakersshouldrequiretheUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyandindustrytodefineandestimatethedangersthat
aggregateexposuretoharmfulchemicalsposetopregnantwomen,infants,andchildrenandacttoprotectthese
vulnerablepopulations,
”saidJeanneA.Conry,MD,PhD,presidentofACOG.
TheWingspreadStatement:AVisionforProtectingChildren’sEnvironmentalHealth
10/2014TheChildren'sEnvironmentalHealthNetworkconvenedadiversegroupofleadersfromscience,nonprofit
advocacy,environmentaljustice,childhealth,urbanplanning,academia,publichealth,publicpolicyandlaw.
“Weunanimouslysupportthefollowingprinciples:Allchildrenhavetherighttobreathecleanair,eatsafeandhealthfulfood,
drinkpurewater,andenjoytoysandproductsfreefromenvironmentalhealthandsafetythreats;
Allchildrenhavetherighttohealthy,safe,andsecurehomes,childcarefacilities,schools,andcommunities;
Allchildrenandtheirparentsandcaretakershavetherighttoknowaboutprovenandpotentialhazardstotheir
environmentalhealthandsafetyandtoprotectionfromthesethreats.”
26
PRESSRELEASEN°20831May2011
IARCCLASSIFIESRADIOFREQUENCYELECTROMAGNETICFIELDSAS
POSSIBLYCARCINOGENICTOHUMANS
Lyon,France,May31,2011--TheWHO/InternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer(IARC)hasclassified
radiofrequencyelectromagneticfieldsaspossiblycarcinogenictohumans(Group2B),basedonanincreased
riskforglioma,amalignanttypeofbraincancer,associatedwithwirelessphoneuse.
Background:Overthelastfewyears,therehasbeenmountingconcernaboutthepossibilityofadversehealth
effectsresultingfromexposuretoradiofrequencyelectromagneticfields,suchasthoseemittedbywireless
communicationdevices.Thenumberofmobilephonesubscriptionsisestimatedat5billionglobally.
FromMay24–312011,aWorkingGroupof31scientistsfrom14countrieshasbeenmeetingatIARCinLyon,
France,toassessthepotentialcarcinogenichazardsfromexposuretoradiofrequencyelectromagneticfields.
TheseassessmentswillbepublishedasVolume102oftheIARCMonographs.
“ThisclassificationjustifiestheimplementationofthePrecautionaryPrinciple...confirmstheexistence
ofnonthermaleffectsthatcancausehealthriskandindicatesthatcurrentsafetystandardsare
insufficienttoprotecthealthoftheusers.”
Dr.DariusLeszynski,memberoftheExpertPaneloftheWHO’sEMFWorkingGroupinColumn23.
“TheIARCMonographsclassificationofRadiofrequencyElectromagneticFields(RFEMF)covers
theentireradiofrequencysegmentoftheelectromagneticspectrum(30kHz300GHz)including
...WiFistations,..”RobertABaanPhD,IARC,2012
SincetheIARCclassificationin2011,researchhascontinuedtoshowlinkstobiologicaleffectsatlowlevels,
wellbelowcurrentexposurestandardsandgovernmentregulations.Manyscientistshavestatedthatasof
2014,criteriahasbeenmetforahighercarcinogenicriskclassificationandtheyarecallingforprecautionsso
citizenscanminimizeexposure.
"Theproperdesignationnow,ifaworkinggroupweretomeet,wouldbecategory2...makingita
probablehumancarcinogen...asyouincreaseradiofrequencyfieldsinourenvironmentyouwill,in
fact,increasethehazard."Dr.AnthonyMilleroftheDallaLanaSchoolofPublicHealth,andIARCAdvisor,
inhisTestimonytotheTorontoCouncilinNovember2013.
WhatistheUSdoing?TheonlyresearchunderwayisarodentstudybytheUSNationalToxicologyProgram
onchroniclowlevelwirelessfrequencies.Resultsarepending.
27
MedicalAssociationsCallingforPrecautions
TheAmericanAcademyofPediatrics(AAP)
“Protectchildren’shealthandwellbeing.Childrenarenotlittleadultsandaredisproportionatelyimpactedbyall
environmentalexposures,includingcellphoneradiation.CurrentFCCstandardsdonotaccountfortheuniquevulnerability
andusepatternsspecifictopregnantwomenandchildren.”Fromtheir2013LettertotheFCCwheretheAAPcalled
forareassessmentofradiationstandardsandtheadoptionofstandardsthatare“protectiveofchildren”and“reflectcurrent
usepatterns.”TheAAPalsostatedthat“thecurrentmetricofRFexposureavailabletoconsumers,theSpecificAbsorption
Rate,isnotanaccuratepredictorofactualexposure.”
TheAAPhasalsocalledforfederalfundsforincreasedresearchandconsumerlabelingintheirDecember12,2012Letterto
DennisKucinichinSupportoftheCellPhoneRighttoKnowActstatingthat“concernshavebeenraisedthatlongtermRF
energyexposureatthislevelaffectsthebrainandothertissuesandmaybeconnectedtotypesofbraincancer,including
gliomaandmeningioma.”
TheAustrianMedicalAssociation:
"WiFienvironmentswillleadtohighmicrowaveexposureforstudentsandteacherswhichmightincreasetheburdenof
oxidativestress.Oxidativestressmightslowdowntheenergyproductionespeciallyinbraincellsandmayleade.g.to
concentrationdifficultiesandmemoryproblemsincertainindividuals.TheAustrianMedicalAssociationrecommendsWiFi
freeschoolenvironments."GerdOberfeld,MD,PublicHealthDepartment,Salzburg,Austria,onbehalfoftheAustrian
MedicalAssociation.
TheAmericanAcademyofEnvironmentalMedicine
“Thepeerreviewed,scientificliteraturedemonstratesthecorrelationbetweenRFexposureandneurological,cardiac,and
pulmonarydiseaseaswellasreproductiveanddevelopmentaldisorders,immunedysfunction,cancerandotherhealth
conditions.Itisbettertoexercisecautionandsubstitutewithasafealternatesuchasawiredconnection.Whilemore
researchisbeingconducted,childrenmustbeprotected.Wiredtechnologyisnotonlysafer,italsostrongerandmore
secure.”
TheCancerAssociationofSouthAfrica
”Givingchildrencellphonesandotherwirelesstechnologydevicescarriesenormousrisks”warnsMichaelHerbst,Headof
HealthatCANSA.“TheSouthAfricanpublicistotallyinvolvedwithtechnologybutdonotseemtobeawareoftheinherent
dangers."
SwitzerlandPhysiciansfortheEnvironment
“Fromthemedicalpointofview,itisurgenttoapplytheprecautionaryprincipleformobiletelephony,wifi,etc.”Dr.Peter
Kälin,PresidentofPhysiciansfortheEnvironment,1,500physiciansinSwitzerland.
IrishDoctorsEnvironmentalAssociationandTheInternationalSocietyofDoctorsfortheEnvironment
BothOrganizationsstatethatthereissufficientscientificevidencetowarrantmorestringentcontrolsonelectromagnetic
radiationandtheyrecommend:
AvoidWiFiinhomeorworkifpossible,particularlyinschoolsorhospitals.
Usewiredtechnologywheneverpossible.
Measuretheradiationlevelsatsiteswhichareoccupiedforprolongedperiods,
particularlybyinfantsoryoungchildren.
Basestationsshouldnotbelocatedonornear[500m]schoolsorhospitals.
TheEuropeanEnvironmentAgencyReport“LateLessonsfromEarlyWarnings,VolumeII”2013
Reportdetailstheaccumulatingscienceonradiofrequencyradiation,thesignificantrisksofwaitingand
criticalneedtotakeprecautionaryactiontoreduceexposurestoavoidwidespreadharm.
28
Ifwewanttowaitforfinalproof,atleastintermsofcancer,itmaystilltake20yearsandtheissue
willbecomethatwewillnothaveunexposedpopulationtoactascontrol.Wemayneverhavethe
absolutefinalproof.
Butwehaveenoughdatatogoaheadwithaprecautionaryprinciple.”Annie
Sasco,MD,DScDirector,EpidemiologyforCancerPrevention,INSERM,Formerly
InternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer,UnitChiefofEpidemiologyforCancer
Prevention,TestimonytoCanadianParliament,2012.
RussianNationalCommitteeonNonIonizingRadiationProtection
“OurCommitteeandIarepersonallyagainsttheuseofWiFisystemsinschools.ProfessorYuryGrigorievhasthesame
opinion.Thereasonisthatitformsaverycomplexformofelectromagneticfield,butinthiscasetheprobabilityofbiological
effectishigherthanwhenthesametotaldoseiscreatedbyonesourceofunmodulatedelectromagneticfield.Thispatternis
fornonthermalelectromagneticfields.Thereareverygoodstudiesthathaveshownthatprolongedexposuretolowintensity
radiowavesinchildrendisturbedcognitivefunction,andwetrustthisresearch.“ProfessorDr.OlegGrigoriev,PhD,
DirectoroftheRussianCentreforElectromagneticSafetyandViceChairmanoftheRCNIRP.ProfessorYury
Grigoriev,Dr.ofMedicalScience,ChairmanoftheRussianNationalCommitteeonNonIonizingRadiation
Protection(RCNIRP).
“Havingdoneexperimentsoncellularmodelsystemswehavefoundaneffectfromelectromagneticradiation
fromWiFi.Ihavestronglysuggestedforyearsnowthattheyshouldbeusedonlyifabsolutelynecessaryin
thehomeandnotatallinschools.ThereisnoreasonforhavingWiFiinschoolssincethereisanalternative
wiredconnectionswhicharesaferandfaster”.ProfessorLukasH.Margaritis,PhD,ProfessorEmeritusof
CellBiologyandRadiobiology,DeptofCellBiologyandBiophysics,UniversityofAthens,Greece.
BelyaevDr.Sc.,HeadResearchScientist,CancerResearchInstitute,Slovak
“Tomyopinion,whichisbasedon25yearresearchofnonthermaleffectsofmicrowaves,usageofWiFiand
cell/mobile/smartphonesintheclassroomshouldbeeitherforbiddenorreducedasmuchaspossible.I
believethatthemajorityofscientistswithlonglastingexperienceinthisscientificfieldareofthesameopinion.
“DrBelyaev,HeadResearchScientist,CancerResearchInstitute,SlovakAcademyofScience,Slovak
Republic;AssociateProfessorinToxicologicalGenetics,FacultyofNaturalScience,Stockholm
University,Sweden.
“Theconcernsraisedregardingtheunnecessaryandprolongedexposureofchildrentonearfield
radiofrequencyelectromagneticradiation(RFEMR)frommobilephones,wirelesslaptops(ontheirlaps),and
nearbyWiFitransmittersinschoolsaresharedbymany.Aprecautionaryapproachisrealisticallyachieved
withoutcompromisingconvenienceand
safety.”DrViniG.Khurana,Asst.ProfessorofNeurosurgery,AustralianNationalUniversityMedical
School;CurrentlyVisitingAttendingNeurosurgeon,RoyalMelbourneHospital.
FormoreinformationonscientistsdocumentationpleaseseetheSAFESCHOOLS2012Document.
29
AnswerstoCommonlyAskedQuestions
ChildrenandWirelessRadiation
Q:Iswirelesstechnologysafe?
A:WiFiandallradiofrequencyradiationhasbeenontheWorldHealthOrganization’sClass2BListof
PossibleHumanCarcinogensformorethanthreeyears(sinceMay2011)basedonresearchshowing
increasedbraincancerinheavyusers(30minutesperday)withover10yearsofuse.LeadandDDTarealso
includedonthislist.Recentresearchusingcomputergeneratedsignalsfromworkingcellphonesfindsthat
thisradiationincreasesdamagetohumanspermandoffspringofanimalsexposedprennada
atally.Theseeffectsarenottakenintoaccountwhenstandardsaresetforthesedevices.
Q:Whatisknownaboutsafetyforchildren?
A:Childrenarenotlittleadults.Children'sskullsarethinnerandtissuesofachild’shead,includingthebone
marrowandtheeye,absorbsignificantlymoreenergythanthoseinanadulthead.Itisscientificallyaccepted
thatchildrenaremorevulnerabletothebiologicaleffectsofmicrowaveexposurethanadultsduetheirrapidly
developingbodysystems.Children’sstemcellsaremoreaffectedbymicrowaveradiation.
Nostudiesshowthatmicrowaveradiationexposureinchildrenissafeorthatcontinuousexposurefromcell
phones,celltowers,cordlessphones,WiFirouters,babymonitors,etc.issafe.
Q:IscellphoneradiationthesameasWiFiradiation?
A:CommonlyusedcellphoneandWiFisignalfrequenciesareallclassifiedasradiofrequencyradiation.Dr.
RobertBaan,amemberoftheInternationalAgencyfortheResearchonCancer,hasstatedthattheClass2B
Carcinogenstatus“holdsforalltypesofradiationwithintheradiofrequencypartoftheelectromagnetic
spectrum,includingtheradiationemittedbybasestationantennas,radio/TVtowers,radarandWiFi.”
Q:Arechildrenatincreasedrisk?
A:Duetotheiruniquevulnerabilitieschildrenarethoughttobeatincreasedrisk.Currentresearchprovides
evidence.Forexample,Dr.LennartHardellandhisresearchteamatOrebroUniversityinSwedenshowedthat
childrenwhostartusingamobilephoneasteenagersdevelop4to8timesmorebraincancersthanthosewho
begantousephoneslaterinlife.Experimentalstudiesareshowingsignificantneurologicalchangesfrom
exposuretomicrowaveradiationlevelsthatmeetourFCCguidelines.Environmentalexposuresatcritical
periodscanhaveprofoundeffectsonfetalandchildhooddevelopment.
Q:Don’torganizationssuchastheWHO,FDA,CDC,NationalCancerInstituteandtheEPAsayWiFi
issafe?
A:RepresentativesfromtheseagenciesdoNOTdeclarethatwirelessissafe.Theysaythereisinconclusive
evidenceandthat“moreresearch”isneeded.TheCenterforDiseaseControlrecommends“caution,”and
includesadviceabouthowtoreduceexposure,asdoestheFCC.
Formostenvironmentalhazardsproofcomesintheformofepidemiologicalstudiesofpastconditions.Asan
example,howtheWHOclassifiedoutdoorairpollutionasaClass1CarcinogeninSeptember2013citing
researchindicatingthatin20103.2milliondeathsworldwideresultedfromairpollution.Whenaskedwhyithad
takensolongtoreachthisconclusion,IARCdirectorDr.ChristopherWildsaid,“Oftenwe'relookingattwo,
threeorfourdecadesonceanexposureisintroducedbeforethereissufficientimpactontheburdenofcancer
inthepopulationtobeabletostudythistypeofquestion.”Similartomanyothercarcinogens,undeniableproof
maynotbeavailablefordecades.
30
TheEPAstates,“Moreresearchisneededtoclarifythequestionofsafety.”Nomedicalorganizationthatwe
knowofhasdeclaredthisradiationsafe.
Q:Hasn’tourgovernmentsetsafetystandardsbasedonascientificreviewoftheevidence?
A:TheEPAandtheFDAhaveneverdoneacomprehensivescientificreviewofthisradiationtoset
standardsthatprotecthumanhealth.Currentexposurestandardsweredevelopedin1993whenwireless
technologywasnotwidespreadasitistoday.
Currently,theFCCistheagencythatensurescompliancewithradiofrequencyexposurestandardsinthis
country.However,theFCCisnotamedicalnorscienceagency.Currentstandardshavenotbeenreviewedfor
over18yearsintheUnitedStates.EHTandmanyotherexpertsinthefieldarecallingthecurrentstandards
outdatedandinadequatetoprotecthumanhealth.
The CDC is not charged with monitoring this issue either. In fact they were recently briefed on the issue.
Please see "Mobile Phone Use and Cancer Risk: Research on a Group 2B Carcinogen" Joel Moskowitz,
Webinar for CDC Workgroup on Cancer Prevention (Oct 29, 2014)
Slides: http://bit.ly/CDCWebinar102914
Audio: http://bit.ly/101l2lR or http://bit.ly/1tDZbg2
Q:Iheardthattheoverwhelmingmajorityofstudiesthathavebeenpublishedinscientificjournals
aroundtheworldshowthatwirelessmicrowaveradiationisnot
ahealthrisk.Pleaseexplainthis.
A:Actuallythehumanevidenceforriskhasincreased.Since2011,severalmajorepidemiologicstudies
providefurtherevidencethatlongtermmobilephoneuseisassociatedwithincreasedriskofglioma(atypeof
malignantbraintumor)andacousticneuroma(anonmalignanttumorofthenervethatconnectstheeartothe
brain).Moreover,tumorrisksincreasewiththeamountanddurationofmobilephoneuseandarestrongeron
thesideoftheheadwherethemobilephonewaspredominantlyused.
Ifyousetasidetheindustryfundedstudies,theoverwhelmingweightoftheevidenceshowsthereisa
significantproblem.Inadditiontoexperimentalresearchoncancer,thereareover1000peerreviewed,
publishedpapersshowingotherharmfulbiologicaleffectsfrommicrowaveradiationexposuresuchasdamage
tosperm,pregnancyandnervoussystems.
Q:Whatistheproblemwithcurrentexposurestandards?
A:ThereareseveralreasonsthatcurrentFCCstandardsareconsideredinadequate:
Theyareoutofdate,havingbeensetin1993
Theguidelineswerebasedsolelyonpreventingthermaleffects,i.e.heating.Yetnumerous
peerreviewed,publishedstudiesreportnonthermaleffectsindicatingbiologicalchangesfrom
exposuretononthermalradiationlevels.
Theguidelinesdonotaccountforexposuretomultiplesourcesandonlyconsider30minutesof
exposurefromonedeviceatatime.
Theguidelinesdonotconsiderresearchshowingthatcurrentcellphonescanproduce“hotspots”inthe
brains,andare,thus,notinfactnonthermal.
Theguidelineswerebasedonanadultmalebody’sabsorptionofradiation.Children’ssmallerbodies
andbrainswerenotconsideredinthemetrics.
31
Theguidelinesconsideraverageexposures,notpeakexposures.Researchsuggestsourbiologyis
affectedbytheerraticnatureofthesignalandthatcellsrespondtoshortintenseburstsofradiation
eveniftheaverageovertimeseemslow.
AccordingtotheEPA,“TheFCC’scurrentexposureguidelinesarethermallybasedanddonotapplyto
chronic,nonthermalexposuresituations.”WirelessdeviceuseandWiFirouterradiationintheclassroomis
typicallychronic,nonthermalradiationforthe1080hoursachildisinschooleachyear.
Q:Arescientistsandmedicalorganizationsconcernedabouthowtheinadequatestandardsmight
impactpublichealth?
A:Yes.TheAmericanAcademyofPediatricshascalledontheFCCto“Protectchildren’shealthand
wellbeing,”statingthat“Childrenarenotlittleadultsandaredisproportionatelyimpactedbyallenvironmental
exposures,includingcellphoneradiation.CurrentFCCstandardsdonotaccountfortheuniquevulnerability
andusepatternsspecifictopregnantwomenandchildren.”
In2014,researchersandscientistsfromaroundtheworldmadeaDeclarationthatCanadianGuidelines
(whicharesimilartoUSguidelines)areinadequatetoprotectcitizens.Thiscomesafterdozensofsuch
declarationsovertheyears.Pleaseseeourbriefingbookfordetailsoneachofthesedeclarations.
InFebruaryof2014,theUSDepartmentoftheInterioraccusedtheUSFederalgovernmentofemploying
outdatedwirelessradiationstandardsstating,“theelectromagneticradiationstandardsusedbytheFederal
CommunicationsCommission(FCC)continuetobebasedonthermalheating,acriterionnownearly30years
outofdateandinapplicabletoday.”
Q:Howaretheseexposurelimitsmade?
Thelimitssetformanufacturersuseaplastic,liquidfilled,computermodelbasedona220poundmannequin.
Mostofthepopulation,includingchildren,thefetusandwomen,arenotrepresentedbythismodel.Significant
researchismakingthepointthatsuchmodelsdonotadequatelyrepresenthowtheradiationpenetratesyoung
brains.Inadditionresearchsuggeststhatlivingbrainscandevelophotspotsfromtheradiation.Theplastic
mannequinmodeldoesnotaccountforsuchvulnerabilitiesandcannotmeasurethishotspotissuebecause
theliquidisofauniformthicknessunlikerealbrainscomprisedofdifferentdensitiesoftissues.
Q:Howarewirelessdevicestested?
A:TheFCCregulatesthattabletsandlaptopsaretestedwhileplacedat20cmawayfromthebody.Thatis
about8inches.Thismeansthatatthisdistanceof20cmthedevicewillnotexceedthermallybasedfederal
guidelinesforradiationexposure.Howeverifyouusethedeviceclosertoyourbodyyoucouldpotentiallybe
exposedtolevelsthatexceedthesefederalguidelines.Thismeansyourtissuecouldheatup.
Q:Wouldn’tcompaniesberequiredtowarnusabouttheseradiationissues?
A:Everymajormanufacturerofwirelessdevicesintheworldissueswarningstokeeptheirdevicesaway
fromdirectcontactwiththebody.However,thesefineprintwarningsareburiedinthefineprintofmanualsor
withinoperatingsystemsandmostparentsandchildrenarenotawarethewarningsexist.
iPad:“...tobesurethathumanexposuretoRFenergydoesnotexceedtheFCC,IC,andEuropeanUnion
guidelines,alwaysfollowtheseinstructionsandprecautions:OrientthedeviceinportraitmodewiththeHome
buttonatthebottomofthedisplay,orinlandscapemodewiththecellularantenna(locatedundertheblack
edgeatthetopofthedevice)awayfromyourbodyorotherobjects...”
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Q:Soifmychildrenusethewirelesslaptopatthemanufacturer’srecommended20cmdistanceona
tablewilltheybesafe?
A:The20cmmeasurementonly
pertainstoavoidingthermalheatingrisksforadults.
Itdoesnotprotect
childrenfrombiologicaleffects.Thereisnoscientificallyestablishedsafelevelnorscientificallyrecommended
distancetoprotectchildrenfromalifetimeofexposuretomultipleWifidevicesthatcanhavenonthermal
effectsontheirreproductiveandnervoussystems.
Exposureiscumulative.Lowdosesaddupoveralifetime.Scientistshaveneverevaluatedthetotal
cumulativeexposuresofchildreninaclassroomwithnumerousoperatingdevicesheldontheirlapsorbodies,
muchlessaschoolwithdozensofclassroomswithroutersandpersonaldevicesinuse.Thereisno
governmentagency,federalormunicipal,thatcurrentlyhasthemandate,abilityorresourcestomeasurethe
cumulativeeffectsofwirelessradiationfrommultiplesourcesathome,workorschoolwithWiFi,cellphones,
tablets,homecordlessphones.

Whenitcomestosafetyconsiderations,usingcordsorcablesforethernetconnectivitywithWiFi
featuresturnedoffandmaterialsalreadydownloadedtothedevice.Thiseliminatestheriskfromthis
microwaveexposure.
Q:IstheWiFitechnologybeingusedinschoolsthesameaswhatisbeingusedinmosthomes
today?
A:No.WiFisystemsinschooldistrictsareusuallymuchhigherstrengthbecausetheyaredesignedto
operatehundredsofcomputerssimultaneously,unlikehomebasedconsumersystemsthatonlyoperatea
handfulofcomputers.
Q:ShouldwebeconcernedaboutusingWiFiathomeaswellasatschool?
A:Achildworkingonawirelessdeviceinahomewillbeabsorbingtheradiationfromthedevice.We
recommendusingcordsorcablesfornonwirelessconnectionswheneverpossible.Cellphonescanbe
lifesavingtoolsandcriticaltechnologywhenwearetraveling.However,ourhomes,likeschools,arean
exampleofaspacewherewecaneasilyprefernonwirelessinternetconnectionsaswehavespecific
locationswhereweuseourcomputers.
Q:Wirelessiseverywhere.Aretherereallyactionsthatwillmakeadifference?
A:Childrenspendmostoftheirtimeathomesleepingandatschoollearning.Bymakingsimplechanges
suchasusingcordsandcablesforcomputersandkeepingdevicesonAirplanemode,achild’sdailyexposure
willbesignificantlyreduced.Sinceexposureiscumulativeandchildrenwillhavealifetimetobeexposed,such
reductionactionswillmakeatremendousdifference.
Q: Whataretheeverydaysourcesofmicrowaveradiationinourhome?
A: Eachelectronicproductthatcanwirelesslysendvoice,images,ordatatoanotherproductornetwork
emitsmicrowaveradiation.Inadditiontocellphones,herearesomeexamplesofdevicesthatemitmicrowave
radiation:tablets,laptops,digitalbabymonitors,cordlessphones,printers,iPodTouch,wirelesstvservice,
signalboosters,portableinternetsticks,projectors,wirelessgamingconsoles,cordlesskeyboards,cordless
speakers,“smart”watches,wifiorbluetoothfitnesswristbands,andevenyourcordlesscomputermouseisa
strongemitter.Ifadevicecan“sync”withyourphonewithoutacord,thenthedeviceiswireless.Wireless
radiationcanbeanemissionfromanysizeofcommunicationdevice,computer,appliance,monitor,sensor,
wearable,etc.Microwaveovensshouldbetestedforleaks(Seeourwebsiteforasimpletest)
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Q: Iamnotreadytogiveupmywifi,isthereanythingIcando?
A: Youcansignificantlyreduceyourexposurebysimplyturningthewirelessoff(poweroff)whennotin
use,justasyouwouldanyappliance.Besuretoturnyourrouter,cellphones,gamingconsolesandall
wirelessdevicesoffatbedtime.Inaddition,considerwherethewifirouter(andanyotherwifisource)islocated
andbesurethatitisnotnearbedroomsorlivingspaceswhereanyperson(orpet)spendsalargeamountof
time.Wallsdon’tblockwirelessradiation.
Youalsocancontactyourinternetprovider,whocanatnochargeremotelyturndownthesignalstrength.
Oftentheinternetprovidercanexplainhowyoucancontrolthatsignalstrengthyourselfonline.Somerouters
aresettopumpoutradiationstrongenoughtoreach100metersinalldirections,butthisisusuallynot
necessaryinourhomes.Ifyoutalktoyourneighborsaboutturningtheirsignalstrengthdownandmoreoften
off,thisisawinwinasitwillreduceyourandtheirwifiexposuresandextendthebatterylifeofyourdevices
andyourself.
Q:WiFirouterradiationlevelsaresolow.Howisthisanydifferentthantheelectromagnetic
radiationthathasbeenaroundsincetheEarthbegan?
A:Oursocietyhasneverbeforebeenexposedtothecurrentlevelsofmicrowaveradiationinourworkplaces,
homesandschoolstoday.WiFiemitslevelsofradiofrequencymicrowaveradiationmillionsoftimeshigher
thanwhatourparentsandgrandparentseverexperienced.Wirelessroutersinclassroomsarelikebringing
minicelltowersintoclassrooms.Theyconnecttoeachdeviceintheroomasacelltowerconnectstoeach
phone.Routersalsoareconstantlyputtingoutradiationastheycheckinwithallthedevicesintheroom.
Q:Consideringthenumberofpeopleusingwirelessdevices,shouldn’twebeseeinganincreasein
braintumorincidence,andwearenot?
A:CancerregistriesintheUnitedStatesandseveralothercountriesarenowshowingsomeincreasedrates
ofbraincancer.Youngerpersonswhohavebeguntousecellphonesasteenagersareatthehighestrisk.
Theincidenceoftheworstbraincancer,glioblastoma,hasincreasedintheUnitedStatesandDenmark
(Morganetal,2014).AnAustralianstudyhasshownanoverallsignificantincreaseinprimarymalignantbrain
tumorsfrom2000to2008,particularlysince2004.Anotherrecentstudy(Zadaetal,2012)showsanincrease
inbraintumorsinthreemajorcancerregistriesintheUnitedStates.Theincreaseseenisinthefrontaland
temporallobes,whicharethetworegionsclosesttowhereacellphoneistypicallyheld.
Thereisalonglatencyperiodforbraintumors–from5toaslongas50years.Sincecellphoneshaveonly
beenwidelyusedintheUSfortwodecades,thefullincreaseincancerratesisstillunknown.Ratesofautism,
ADHD,diabetes,foodallergiesandimmunediseasesareskyrocketing,anditisunderstoodthatthisincrease
cannotbeduetogeneticsaloneasthegenomedoesnotchangeintwodecades.Environmentalfactorsare
increasinglythoughttobebehindthissharprise.Likeairpollutionandchemicalexposures,electromagnetic
fieldshavebeenshowntoincreasestressonbiologicalsystemsandimpactthedevelopingbrain.Some
researchispointingtoasynergisticeffectbetweentoxicexposuressuchasleadandelectromagneticfields.
The2011IARCclassificationofcellphoneradiationasapossiblecarcinogenwasbasedontheevidence
fromhumanstudies(EuropeanInterphonegroupandHardellgroupinSweden)andanimalstudies.Sincethat
evaluation,in2014,anewepidemiologicalstudy–theFrenchCERENATstudywaspublished.Thisnewstudy
reachedsimilarconclusionsasInterphoneandHardell–longtermaviduseofcellphoneincreasesariskof
developingbraincancer.Thismeanswehavethreereplicationsstudiesthatallsuggestcellphoneradiation
mightincreaseariskofbraincancer.Thesestudiesshowingthatovertenyearsuseofcellphoneat30
minutesadayleadstoanincreasedriskofbraincancershouldbetakenasaseriouswarningsign.
34
TheEnvironmentalHealthTrustsupportstheappropriateuseoftechnologyinclassroomsandapplaudsthe
creativeuseofdigitalresources.Theuseoftechnologyandaccesstotheinternetdoesnotrequirethe
constantexposureofchildrentomicrowaveradiation.Cordsandcablesaswireline(nonwireless)connections
arethesafestoptionforinternetaccess.
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ArnetzB,AkerstedtT,HilletL,LowdenA,KusterN,WiholmC.(2007).TheEffectsof884MHzGSMWirelessCommunicationSignalsonSelfreported
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ByunYH,HaM,KwonHJ,HongYC,LeemJH.(2013).MobilePhoneUse,BloodLeadLevels,andAttentionDeficitHyperactivitySymptomsin
Children:ALongitudinalStudy.PLoSONE
.8(3)
GandhiOP,MorganLL,DeSallesAA,HanYY,HerbermanRB,DavisDL.(2012).Exposurelimits:theunderestimationofabsorbedcellphone
radiation,especiallyinchildren.ElectromagnBiolMed
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GultekinD,MoellerL.(2012).NMRimagingofcellphoneradiationabsorptioninbraintissue.NationalAcademyofSciences
.110(1),58–63.
HankinN.(2002).ReplytoJanetNewton’sletter:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.CenterforScienceandRiskAssessmentRadiationProtectionUnit.
MorganL,KesariS,DavisD.(2014).Whychildrenabsorbmoremicrowaveradiationthanadults:Theconsequences.
JournalofMicroscopyand
Ultrastructure
.2(2).
PeartK(2012).."Cellphoneuseinpregnancymaycausebehavioraldisordersinoffspring",YaleNews.
RodaC,PerryS.(2014).MobilephoneinfrastructureregulationinEurope:Scientificchallengesandhumanrightsprotection.EnvironmentalScience&
Policy
.37,204214.
RussellC.(2013).ShallowMinds:HowtheInternetandWi–FiinSchoolsCanAffectLearning,SantaClaraCountyMedicalAssociation.
SametJ,StraifK,SchuzJ,SaracciR.(2014).Commentary:mobilephonesandcancer:nextstepsafterthe2011IARCreview.Epidemiology
.25(1),
237.
TaylorW.(2014).LettertoMr.EliVeenendaaloftheNationalTelecommunicationsandInformationAdministration.USDepartmentofCommerce
letter
toFCCcriticizingcurrentstandardsfailuretotakeintoaccountnonthermalimpactsonanimals..
SelectedExamplesofResearchforHealthEffects
Pleaseclickontheunderlinedlinkstogototheonlineabstract.
ReproductiveEffects
35
AdamsJ,GallowayT,MondalD,EstevesS,MathewsF.(2014).Effectofmobiletelephonesonsperm
quality:Asystematicreviewandmetaanalysis.EnvironmentInternational
.80,106112.
Ouranalysesindicatenegativeassociationsbetweenmobilephoneexposureonspermviabilityand
motility.Theeffectsonconcentrationaremoreequivocal.Furtherresearchisrequiredtoquantifythese
effectsmorepreciselyandtoevaluatetheclinicalimportanceoftherisktobothsubfertilemenandthe
generalpopulation.
AgarwalA,DesaiNR,MakkerK,VargheseA,MouradiR,SabaneghE,SharmaR.(2009).Effectsof
radiofrequencyelectromagneticwaves(RFEMW)fromcellularphonesonhumanejaculatedsemen:an
invitropilotstudy,FertilSteril
.(4),131825.
“Radiofrequencyelectromagneticwavesemittedfromcellphonesmayleadtooxidativestressin
humansemen.Wespeculatethatkeepingthecellphoneinatrouserpocketintalkmodemay
negativelyaffectspermatozoaandimpairmalefertility.”
AtasoyHI,GunalMY,AtasoyP,ElgunS,BugdayciG.(2013).Immunohistopathologicdemonstrationof
deleteriouseffectsongrowingrattestesofradiofrequencywavesemittedfromconventionalWiFi
devices.JournalofPediatricUrology.
9(2),2239.
Significantincreasesinserum8hydroxy2'deoxyguanosinelevelsand8hydroxyguanosinestainingin
thetestesoftheexperimentalgroupindicatingDNAdamageduetoexposure(p<0.05).
AvendañoC,MataA,SanchezSarmientoCA,DoncelGF.(2012).Useoflaptopcomputersconnectedto
internetthroughWiFidecreaseshumanspermmotilityandincreasesspermDNAfragmentation.
FertilitySterility.
97(1),3945.
Exvivoexposureofhumanspermatozoatoawirelessinternetconnectedlaptopdecreasedmotilityand
inducedDNAfragmentationbyanonthermaleffect.
AzadiOskouyiE,RajaeiF,SafariVarianiA,SarokhaniMR,JavadiA.(2014).Effectsofmicrowaves(950
MHZmobilephone)onmorphometricandapoptoticchangesofrabbitepididymis.Andrologia.
Theepithelialheightanddiameteroftheepididymisin3wattand6wattgroups(2weeks,2haday
withafrequencyof950MHZ)hadasignificantdecrease,thetestosteronelevelonlyin6wattgroup
wassignificantlydecreased.Therateofapoptosisintheepithelialcellsoftheepididymishada
significantincreasein6wattgroup.
Theepididymisisatubeconnectingtheductsfromeachtesticletoitsvasdeferens.
“Thisstudyshowedthatthemicrowaveswiththefrequencyof950MHzcanhavenegativeimpactson
morphometricandapoptoticchangesofrabbitepididymis.’
DeIuliisGN,NeweyRJ,KingBV,AitkenRJ.(2009).Mobilephoneradiationinducesreactiveoxygen
speciesproductionandDNAdamageinhumanspermatozoainvitro.PlosOneJuly31
,4(7)
InstepwithincreasingSAR,motilityandvitalityweresignificantlyreducedafterRFEMRexposure,
36
whilethemitochondrialgenerationofreactiveoxygenspeciesandDNAfragmentationwere
significantlyelevated(P<0.001).Furthermore,wealsoobservedhighlysignificantrelationships
betweenSAR,theoxidativeDNAdamagebiomarker,8OHdG,andDNAfragmentationafterRFEMR
exposure.
“Thesefindingshaveclearimplicationsforthesafetyofextensivemobilephoneusebymalesof
reproductiveage,potentiallyaffectingboththeirfertilityandthehealthandwellbeingoftheiroffspring”.
DesaiNR,KesariKK,AgarwalA.(2009).Pathophysiologyofcellphoneradiation:oxidativestressand
carcinogenesiswithfocusonmalereproductivesystem.ReprodBiolEndocrinol
.
7,114.
“ThisreviewidentifiestheplasmamembraneasatargetofRFEMW.Inaddition,theeffectsof
RFEMWonplasmamembranestructures(i.e.NADHoxidase,phosphatidylserine,ornithine
decarboxylase)andvoltagegatedcalciumchannelsarediscussed.
Weexplorethedisturbanceinreactiveoxygenspecies(ROS)metabolismcausedbyRFEMWand
delineateNADHoxidasemediatedROSformationasplayingacentralroleinoxidativestress(OS)due
tocellphoneradiation(withafocusonthemalereproductivesystem).
Thisreviewalsoaddresses:1)thecontroversialeffectsofRFEMWonmammaliancellsandsperm
DNAaswellasitseffectonapoptosis,2)epidemiological,invivoanimalandinvitrostudiesonthe
effectofRFEMWonmalereproductivesystem,and3)finally,exposureassessmentanddosimetryby
computationalbiomodeling”.
GhanbariM,MortazaviSB,KhavaninA,KhazaeiM.(2013).TheEffectsofCellPhoneWaves(900
MHzGSMBand)onSpermParametersandTotalAntioxidantCapacityinRats.
InternationalJournalof
FertilityandSterility
7(1),218.
Spermviability,motility,andtotalantioxidantcapacityinallexposuregroupsdecreasedsignificantly
comparedtothecontrolgroup(p<0.05).
Increasingthedurationofexposurefrom2to3weekscausedastatisticallysignificantdecreasein
spermviabilityandmotility(p<0.05).
"CONCLUSION:Exposuretocellphonewavescandecreasespermviabilityandmotilityinrats.These
wavescanalsodecreasespermtotalantioxidantcapacityinratsandresultinoxidativestress."
GulA,CelebiH,UğraşS.(2009).Theeffectsofmicrowaveemittedbycellularphonesonovarianfollicles
inrats.ArchGynecolObstet.
280(5),72933.
Exposure:30minutesevery24hourspregnancy.
decreasednumberoffolliclesinpupsexposedtomobilephonemicrowavessuggestthatintrauterine
exposurehastoxiceffectsonovaries.”
“microwavesofmobilephonesmightdecreasethenumberoffolliclesinratsbyseveralknownand,no
doubt,countlessunknownmechanisms.”
LaVigneraS,CondorelliR,VicariE,D’AgataR,CalogeroA.(2012)Effectsoftheexposuretomobile
phonesonmalereproduction:areviewoftheliterature.JournalofAndrology
.33(3),350356.
ReviewofResearch:“TheresultsshowedthathumanspermatozoaexposedtoRFEMRhave
decreasedmotility,morphometricabnormalities,andincreasedoxidativestress,whereasmenusing
37
mobilephoneshavedecreasedspermconcentration,decreasedmotility(particularlyrapidprogressive
motility),normalmorphology,anddecreasedviability.Theseabnormalitiesseemtobedirectlyrelated
tothedurationofmobilephoneuse.”
MarkovM,GrigorievYG.(2013).WiFitechnology–anuncontrolledglobalexperimentonthehealthof
mankind.ElectromagneticBiologyandMedicine.32(2),2008
“Forthefirsttimeinthehistoryofmankind,becauseofaggressiveuseofmobilephoneschildrenare
exposedtoharmfulnonionizingradiationandpotentiallyaresubjectoflargerriskthanadults.Evenif
thedosereceivedbythechildren’sbrainisthesameasforadults,duetothespecificityofthebody
sizeandphysiologicaldevelopment,childrenareingreaterdanger.”
Weshouldstoptellingthescience,politiciansandgeneralpopulationthatWiFiisharmless...We
shouldbetterbehonestandsaythat“wedonotknowwhatlongtermeffectsmightbe.”
“thecontinuousnoncontrolledexposureoftheentirecivilizationtolowintensityEMFsrepresentsnow
moreseriousproblemforthemankindthanionizingradiationwherethesourcesofradiationareunder
strictcontrolandarewelllocalized”
PanagopoulosD,JohanssonO,CarloG.(2013).AnalysingtheHealthImpactsofModern
TelecommunicationsMicrowaves.PLoSOne.8(6).
"Inthepresentstudyweshowedthatmicrowaveradiationsusedinmodernmobiletelecommunications
candamageDNAandinducecelldeathorheritablemutationswhichmayinturnresultinreproduction
decreases,degenerativediseases,orcancer.Weanalyzedthebiophysicalandbiochemical
mechanismunderlyingthisbiologicalimpact,anddiscusseddosimetryandprotectionissues.
Allhealthyorganismshavedefensemechanismsinordertorepairbiologicaldamages.Butdefense
mechanismsareweakerinchildrenandoldindividuals,andbecomealsoweakerduringsicknessor
duringstressconditions.Althougheventhemostseriousbiologicaleffectsmaynotnecessarilyleadto
healtheffectsinanexposedindividual,allhealtheffectsareinitiatedbycorrespondingbiologicalones.
Thereby,biologicaleffectsespeciallythemostseriousonesasisDNAdamageorcelldeath
inductionmaypotentiallyleadtohealtheffects.
PanagopoulosD.(2012).EffectofmicrowaveexposureontheovariandevelopmentofDrosophila
melanogaster.CellBiochemBiophys
.63(2),12132.
“theovariansizeoftheexposedinsectsissignificantlysmallerthanthatofthecorresponding
shamexposedinsects,duetodestructionofeggchambersbytheGSMradiation,afterDNAdamage
andconsequentcelldeathinductionintheeggchamber”cellsofthevirginfemalesasshownin
previousexperimentsoninseminatedfemales.
“Thedifferenceinovariansizebetweenshamexposedandexposedvirginfemalefliesbecomesmost
evident3945haftereclosionwhenthefirsteggswithintheovariesareatthelatevitellogenicand
postvitellogenicstages(midlateoogenesis).Morethan45haftereclosion,thedifferenceinovarian
sizedecreases,asthefirstmatureeggsoftheshamexposedinsectsareleavingtheovariesandare
laid.”
MarkoMarkovandYuriG.GrigorievoftheNationalCommitteeofNonIonizing
38
ShahinS,MishraV,SinghSP,ChaturvediCM.(2014).2.45GHzMicrowaveIrradiationAdverselyAffects
ReproductiveFunctioninMaleMouse,MusmusculusbyInducingOxidativeandNitrosativeStress.
FreeRadicRes.
48(5),51125.
Significantdecreaseinspermcount,spermviability,decreaseinseminiferoustubulediameter,
degenerationofseminiferoustubules.Reductionintesticular3βHSDactivityandplasmatestosterone
levelsandincreasedexpressionoftesticulariNOSwasobserved.
These“adversereproductiveeffectssuggestthatchronicexposuretomicrowaveradiationmayleadto
infertilityviafreeradicalspeciesmediatedpathway.”
Cancer:
(2011).Nonionizingradiation,PartII:Radiofrequencyelectromagneticfields/IARCWorkingGroupon
theEvaluationofCarcinogenicRiskstoHumans.IARCMonogrEvalCarcinogRisksHum.102(2),1460.
Radiofrequencyelectromagneticfieldsarepossiblycarcinogenictohumans(Group2B).”(p.421)
““Overall,theWorkingGroupreviewedalltheavailableevidencewithregardtotheuseofwireless
phones,includingbothmobileandcordlessphones,andtheriskofglioma.Timetrendswere
considered,aswereseveralearlycase–controlstudiesandonecohortstudy.Theevidencefromthese
studieswasconsideredlessinformativethantheresultsoftheINTERPHONEstudyandtheSwedish
case–controlstudy.Whilebothofthesearesusceptibletobias,theWorkingGroupconcludedthat
thesefindingscouldnotbedismissedasreflectingbiasalone,andthatacausalinterpretationwas
possible.”
“Inconsideringtheevidenceonacousticneuroma,theWorkingGroupconsideredthesame
methodologicalconcernsasforglioma,butconcludedthatbiaswasnotsufficienttoexplainthepositive
findings,particularlythoseofthestudyfromSweden.”(p.412)
CoureauG,BouvierG,LebaillyP,FabbroPerayP,GruberA,LeffondreK,GuillamoJS,LoiseauH,
MathoulinPélissierS,SalamonR,BaldiI.(2014).MobilephoneuseandbraintumoursintheCERENAT
casecontrolstudy.OccupEnvironMed.
71(7),51422.
“CERENATisamulticentercasecontrolstudycarriedoutinfourareasinFrancein2004–2006.No
associationwithbraintumourswasobservedwhencomparingregularmobilephoneuserswith
nonusers.However,thepositiveassociationwasstatisticallysignificantintheheaviestuserswhen
consideringlifelongcumulativedurationformeningiomasandnumberofcallsforgliomasRiskswere
higherforgliomas,temporaltumours,occupationalandurbanmobilephoneuse.
Theseadditionaldatasupportpreviousfindingsconcerningapossibleassociationbetweenheavy
mobilephoneuseandbraintumours.”
MorganLL,MillerAB,SascoA,DavisDL,Mobilephoneradiationcausesbraintumorsandshouldbe
classifiedasaprobablehumancarcinogen(2A)(review). Int J Oncol. 2015 May;46(5):1865-71. Epub
2015 Feb 25.
39
TheCERENATfindingofincreasedriskofgliomaisconsistentwithstudiesthatevaluateduseofmobilephonesfor
adecadeorlongerandcorroboratethosethathaveshownariskofmeningiomafrommobilephoneuse.I
WeconcludethatradiofrequencyfieldsshouldbeclassifiedasaGroup2A̔probable̓humancarcinogenunderthe
criteriausedbytheInternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer(Lyon,France).Additionaldatashouldbegathered
onexposurestomobileandcordlessphones,otherWTDs,mobilephonebasestationsandWiFiroutersto
evaluatetheirimpactonpublichealth.
Weadvisethattheaslowasreasonableachievable(ALARA)principlebeadoptedforusesofthistechnology,while
amajorcrossdisciplinaryeffortisgeneratedtotrainresearchersinbioelectromagneticsandprovidemonitoringof
potentialhealthimpactsofRFEMF.
DavisDL,KesariS,SoskolneCL,MillerAB,SteinY.(2013).Swedishreviewstrengthensgroundsfor
concludingthatradiationfromcellularandcordlessphonesisaprobablehumancarcinogen.
Pathophysiology.
20(2),1239.
“Giventhattreatmentforasinglecaseofbraincancercancostbetween$100,000forradiationtherapy
aloneandupto$1milliondependingondrugcosts,resourcestoaddressthisillnessarealreadyin
shortsupplyandnotuniversallyavailableineitherdevelopingordevelopedcountries.Significant
additionalshortagesinoncologyservicesareexpectedatthecurrentgrowthofcancer.Noother
environmentalcarcinogenhasproducedevidenceofanincreasedriskinjustonedecade...Ifthe
increasedbraincancerriskfoundinyoungusersintheserecentstudiesdoesapplyatthegloballevel,
thegapbetweensupplyanddemandforoncologyserviceswillcontinuetowiden.Manynations,phone
manufacturers,andexpertgroups,advisepreventioninlightoftheseconcernsbytakingthesimple
precautionof"distance"tominimizeexposurestothebrainandbody.Wenotethanbraincanceristhe
proverbial"tipoftheiceberg";therestofthebodyisalsoshowingeffectsotherthancancers.”
CarlbergM,HardellL.DecreasedSurvivalofGliomaPatientswithAstrocytomaGradeIV(Glioblastoma
Multiforme)AssociatedwithLongTermUseofMobileandCordlessPhones.InternationalJournalof
EnvironmentalResearchandPublicHealth.2014;11(10):1079010805.
Weanalysedsurvivalof1678gliomapatientsinour1997–2003and2007–2009casecontrolstudies.
Useofwirelessphonesinthe>20yearslatencygroup(timesincefirstuse)wascorrelatedto
decreasedsurvivalforthosediagnosedwithastrocytomagradeIV.
"DuetotherelationshipwithsurvivaltheclassificationofIARCisstrengthenedandRFEMFshouldbe
regardedashumancarcinogenrequiringurgentrevisionofcurrentexposureguidelines."
L.Hardell,M.Carlberg,CellandcordlessphoneriskforgliomaAnalysisofpooledcasecontrolstudies
inSweden,19972003and20072009,Pathophysiology(2014),Availableonline29October2014.
"Conclusion.Wepreviouslyanalysedtheevidenceongliomaassociatedwiththeuseofwireless
phonesusingtheHillcriteria[20].Weconcludedthatgliomaandalsoacousticneuromaarecausedby
RFEMFemissionsfromwirelessphones,andthusregardedascarcinogenic,underGroup1according
totheIARCclassification,indicatingthatcurrentguidelinesforexposureshouldbeurgentlyrevised.
Thispooledanalysisgivesfurthersupporttothatconclusionregardingglioma."
HardellL,CarlbergM,SöderqvistF,MildK.(2013).Casecontrolstudyoftheassociationbetween
malignantbraintumoursdiagnosedbetween2007and2009andmobileandcordlessphoneuse.
InternationalJournalofOncology
43(6),183345.
40
Forpersonswithmorethan25yearslatencyperiod(timesincefirstuseuntiltumourdiagnosis)a3fold
increasedriskwasfound.Theriskincreasedfurtherfortumourslocatedinthemostexposedareaof
thebrain,thetemporallobe,toa5foldincreasedrisk.
“Thisstudyconfirmedpreviousresultsofanassociationbetweenmobileandcordlessphoneuseand
malignantbraintumours.ThesefindingsprovidesupportforthehypothesisthatRFEMFsplayarole
bothintheinitiationandpromotionstagesofcarcinogenesis”.
HardellL,CarlbergM,Hansson,MildK.(2006).Pooledanalysisoftwocasecontrolstudiesontheuseof
cellularandcordlesstelephonesandtheriskofbenignbraintumoursdiagnosedduring19972003.
InternationalJournalofOncology
.50918.
Inthemultivariateanalysis,asignificantlyincreasedriskofacousticneuromawasfoundwiththeuseof
analoguephones.
HardellL,CarlbergM,SöderqvistF,MildKH.(2013).Pooledanalysisofcasecontrolstudiesonacoustic
neuromadiagnosed19972003and20072009anduseofmobileandcordlessphones.IntJOncol
.
43(4),103644.
“Ipsilateraluseresultedinahigherriskthancontralateralforbothmobileandcordlessphones.OR
increasedper100hcumulativeuseandperyearoflatencyformobilephonesandcordlessphones,
thoughtheincreasewasnotstatisticallysignificantforcordlessphones.Thepercentagetumourvolume
increasedperyearoflatencyandper100hofcumulativeuse,statisticallysignificantforanalogue
phones.Thisstudyconfirmedpreviousresultsdemonstratinganassociationbetweenmobileand
cordlessphoneuseandacousticneuroma.”
HardellL,CarlbergM,HanssonMildK.(2011).Pooledanalysisofcasecontrolstudiesonmalignantbrain
tumoursandtheuseofmobileandcordlessphonesincludinglivinganddeceasedsubjects.IntJ
Oncol.
38(5):146574.
Anincreasedriskwasfoundforgliomaanduseofmobileorcordlessphone.Theriskincreasedwith
latencytimeandcumulativeuseinhoursandwashighestinsubjectswithfirstusebeforetheageof
20.
HardellL,CarlbergM.(2013).UsingtheHillviewpointsfrom1965forevaluatingstrengthsofevidence
oftheriskforbraintumorsassociatedwithuseofmobileandcordlessphones.
RevEnvironHealth.
28(23),97106.
“AllnineissuesoncausationaccordingtoHillwereevaluated.Thecriteriaonstrength,consistency,
specificity,temporality,andbiologicgradientforevidenceofincreasedriskforgliomaandacoustic
neuromawerefulfilled.
BasedontheHillcriteria,gliomaandacousticneuromashouldbeconsideredtobecausedbyRFEMF
emissionsfromwirelessphonesandregardedascarcinogenictohumans,classifyingitasgroup1
41
accordingtotheIARCclassification.Currentguidelinesforexposureneedtobeurgentlyrevised.”
HardellL,CarlbergM,HanssonMildK.(2013).Useofmobilephonesandcordlessphonesisassociated
withincreasedriskforgliomaandacousticneuroma.Pathophysiology.
20(2):85110.
“Wegiveanoverviewofcurrentepidemiologicalevidenceforanincreasedriskforbraintumours
includingametaanalysisoftheHardellgroupandInterphoneresultsformobilephoneuse...Itis
concludedthatoneshouldbecarefulusingincidencedatatodismissresultsinanalyticalepidemiology.
TheIARCcarcinogenicclassificationdoesnotseemtohavehadanysignificantimpacton
governments'perceptionsoftheirresponsibilitiestoprotectpublichealthfromthiswidespreadsourceof
radiation”.
Lerchletal.,Tumorpromotionbyexposuretoradiofrequencyelectromagneticfieldsbelow
exposurelimitsforhumans,BiochemicalandBiophysicalResearchCommunications,Available
online6March2015.
Areplicationstudy.“Numbersoftumorsofthelungsandliversinexposedanimalswere
significantlyhigherthaninshamexposedcontrols.Inaddition,lymphomaswerealsofoundto
besignificantlyelevatedbyexposure.Acleardose–responseeffectisabsent.Wehypothesize
thatthesetumorpromotingeffectsmaybecausedbymetabolicchangesduetoexposure.
Sincemanyofthetumorpromotingeffectsinourstudywereseenatlowtomoderate
exposurelevels(0.04and0.4W/kgSAR),thuswellbelowexposurelimitsfortheusersof
mobilephones,furtherstudiesarewarrantedtoinvestigatetheunderlyingmechanisms.Our
findingsmayhelptounderstandtherepeatedlyreportedincreasedincidencesofbraintumors
inheavyusersofmobilephones.”
CarlbergM,HardellL.DecreasedSurvivalofGliomaPatientswithAstrocytomaGradeIV(Glioblastoma
Multiforme)AssociatedwithLongTermUseofMobileandCordlessPhones.InternationalJournalof
EnvironmentalResearchandPublicHealth.2014;11(10):1079010805.
Survivalwasanalyzedfor1678gliomapatientsinHardells1997–2003and2007–2009casecontrol
studies."ElevatedHR(decreasedsurvival)forthemostmalignantgliomatype,astrocytomagradeIV,
wasfoundforlongtermuseofmobileandcordlessphones.HighestHRwasfoundforcaseswithfirst
usebeforetheageof20years.Theseresultsindicateasurvivaldisadvantageforuseofwireless
phonesinthatpatientgroup".
"Thestudystrengthenstheproposedcausalassociationbetweenuseofmobileandcordlessphones
andglioma.DuetotherelationshipwithsurvivaltheclassificationofIARCisstrengthenedand
RFEMFshouldberegardedashumancarcinogenrequiringurgentrevisionofcurrentexposure
guidelines".
L.LloydMorgan,SantoshKesari,DevraLeeDavis.Whychildrenabsorbmoremicrowaveradiationthan
adults:Theconsequences.JournalofMicroscopyandUltrastructureDOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2014.06.005.In
press.PublishedonlineJul15,2014.
InternationalCancerregistriesareshowingariseinbraincancer.Childrenabsorbmoremicrowave
42
radiation,aClass2Bpossiblecarcinogenthanadults.Thefetusisingreaterdangerthanchildren
fromexposuretoMWR.Thelegalexposurelimitshaveremainedunchangedfordecades.Cellphone
manualswarningsandthe20cmrulefortablets/laptopsviolatethe“normaloperatingposition”
regulation.
MyungS.K.,JuW,McDonnellD,LeeY,KazinetsG,ChengC,MoskowitzJ.(2009).MobilePhoneUseand
RiskofTumors:AMetaAnalysis.JournalofClinicalOncology
,27(33),556.
AMetaAnalysis“Thecurrentstudyfoundthatthereispossibleevidencelinkingmobilephoneuseto
anincreasedriskoftumorsfromametaanalysisoflowbiasedcasecontrolstudies.Prospectivecohort
studiesprovidingahigherlevelofevidenceareneeded”.
Hearingloss
DhirajMaskey,MyeungJuKim.(2014).ImmunohistochemicalLocalizationofBrainderived
NeurotrophicFactorandGlialCellLinederivedNeurotrophicFactorintheSuperiorOlivaryComplexof
MiceafterRadiofrequencyExposure.NeuroscienceLetters.
564,7882
SignificantdecrementsofBDNFimmunoreactivitywerenotedinthelateralsuperiorolive,medial
superiorolive,superiorparaolivarynucleusandmedialnucleusofthetrapezoidbody
ThedecreaseintheimmunoreactivityofneurotrophicfactorssuggestsadetrimentaleffectofRF
exposureintheauditorynuclei.
OktayM,DasdagS.(2006).Effectsofintensiveandmoderatecellularphoneuseonhearingfunction.
ElectromagnBiolMed
.25(1),1321.
Brainstemevokedresponseaudiometric(BERA)andpuretoneaudiometric(PTA)methodswereused
tomeasuretheeffectsofexposureonhearingfunctionofthesubjects.
Detectionthresholdsinthosewhotalkedapproximately2hperdaywerefoundtobehigherthanthose
ineithermoderateusersorcontrolsubjects.
Thisstudyshowsthatahigherdegreeofhearinglossisassociatedwithlongtermexposureto
electromagnetic(EM)fieldgeneratedbycellularphones.
PandaN,MunjalS,BakshiJ.(2007).AudiologicalDisturbancesinLongTermMobilePhoneUsers.
AmericanAcademyofOtolaryngologyHeadandNeckSurgeryFoundation.
100peoplewhohadusedmobilephonesforoverayearsufferedincreasesinthedegreeofhearing
lossoverthespanof12months.
Thestudydiscoveredthatpeoplewhousedtheirphonesformorethan60minutesadayhadaworse
hearingthresholdthanthosewithlessuse.
Theauthorswarnusersofcellphonestolookoutforearsymptomssuchasearwarmth,earfullness,
andringingintheears(tinnitus)asearlywarningsignsthatyoumayhaveanauditoryabnormality.
Theyalsosuggesttheuseofearphones,whichtheyfoundtobesaferthanholdingamobilephoneup
43
totheears.
SudanM,KheifetsL,ArahOA,OlsenJ.(2013).Cellphoneexposuresandhearinglossinchildreninthe
DanishNationalBirthCohort.PaediatrPerinatEpidemiol.
27(3),24757.
Weobservedweakassociationsbetweencellphoneuseandhearinglossatage7,withoddsratios
and95%confidenceintervalsfromthetraditionallogisticregression,MSMandDREmodelsbeing1.21
[95%confidenceinterval[CI]0.99,1.46],1.23[95%CI1.01,1.49]and1.22[95%CI1.00,1.49],
respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:Ourfindingscouldhavebeenaffectedbyvariousbiasesandarenotsufficientto
concludethatcellphoneexposureshaveaneffectonhearing.Thisisthefirstlargescaleepidemiologic
studytoinvestigatethispotentiallyimportantassociationamongchildren,andreplicationofthese
findingsisneeded.
VelayuthamP,GovindasamyGK,RamanR,PrepageranN,NgKH.(2014).Highfrequencyhearingloss
amongmobilephoneusers.IndianJOtolaryngolHeadNeckSurg
.66(1),16972.
Prospectivesingleblindedstudythatusedhighfrequencyaudiometry.
Thisstudyshowedthatthereissignificantlossinthedominantearcomparedtothenondominantear
(P<0.05).Chronicusagemobilephonerevealedhighfrequencyhearinglossinthedominantear
(mobilephoneused)comparedtothenondominantear.
HeartFunction
EsmekayaMA,OzerC,SeyhanN.(2011).900MHzpulsemodulatedradiofrequencyradiationinduces
oxidativestressonheart,lung,testisandlivertissues.GenPhysiolBiophys
.30(1),849.
MDAandNOxlevelswereincreasedsignificantlyinliver,lung,testisandhearttissuesoftheexposed
groupcomparedtoshamandcontrolgroups.(p<0.05).
ResultsofourstudyshowedthatpulsemodulatedRFradiationcausesoxidativeinjuryinliver,lung,
testisandhearttissuesmediatedbylipidperoxidation,increasedlevelofNOxandsuppressionof
antioxidantdefensemechanism.
HavasM,MarrongelleJ.(2010).
Provocationstudyusingheartratevariabilityshowsmicrowave
radiationfrom2.4GHzcordlessphoneaffectsautonomicnervoussystem.EuropeanJournalof
Oncology.
5,273300.
10ofthesubjects(40percent)displayedincreasedheartrate,arrhythmias(irregularheartbeats,a.k.a.
heartpalpitations).
Foursubjectsexperiencedoverttachycardia,orintenseandprolongedheartracing,afterasecondor
twoofexposure,withonesubject’sheartalmosttriplingitsrate.
Strongincreasesinsympatheticnervousactivityanddecreasesinparasympatheticactivityfrom
exposures.
HavasM,MarrongelleJ.(2013).Replicationofheartratevariabilityprovocationstudywith2.4GHz
cordlessphoneconfirmsoriginalfindings,ElectromagneticBiologyandMedicine
.32(2),253266.
44
Doubleblind,shamcontrolledstudydocumentedanincreasedHeartRate,alteredHRVandchanges
inthesympatheticandparasympatheticcontroloftheAutonomicNervousSystem.
"Ourresultsdemonstratethattheradiationfroma2.4GHzcordlessphoneaffectstheANSandmay
putsomeindividualswithpreexistingheartconditionsatriskwhenexposedtoelectromagnetic
frequenciestowhichtheyaresensitive."
TürediS,HancıH,TopalZ,UnalD,MercantepeT,BozkurtI,KayaH,OdacıE.(2014)Theeffectsofprenatal
exposuretoa900MHzelectromagneticfieldonthe21dayoldmaleratheart.ElectromagnBiolMed.Aug
28:18.
Thisstudyinvestigatedtheeffectsonratpuphearttissueofprenatalexposuretoa900megahertz
(MHz)EMF.Pregnantratsweredividedintoexperimental(00MHzEMF(1h/d)ondays1321of
pregnancy)andcontrolgroups.Onpostnatalday21,hearttissueswereextracted.
Malondialdehyde,superoxidedismutaseandcatalasevaluesweresignificantlyhigherinthe
experimentalgrouprats,whileglutathionevalueswerelower.Lightmicroscopyrevealedirregularitiesin
heartmusclefibersandapoptoticchangesintheexperimentalgroup.Electronmicroscopyrevealed
cristalossandswellinginthemitochondria,degenerationinmyofibrilsandstructuralimpairmentsinZ
bands.
OurstudyresultssuggestthatexposuretoEMFintheprenatalperiodcausesoxidativestressand
histopathologicalchangesinmaleratpuphearttissue.
Headaches
DivanHA,KheifetsL,ObelC,OlsenJ.Prenatalandpostnatalexposuretocellphoneuseandbehavioral
problemsinchildren.Epidemiology.2008Jul;19(4):5239.
“Exposuretocellphonesprenatallyand,toalesserdegree,postnatallywasassociatedwithbehavioral
difficultiessuchasemotionalandhyperactivityproblemsaroundtheageofschoolentry.These
associationsmaybenoncausalandmaybeduetounmeasuredconfounding.Ifreal,theywouldbeof
publichealthconcerngiventhewidespreaduseofthistechnology.”
KüçerN,PamukçuT.Selfreportedsymptomsassociatedwithexposuretoelectromagneticfields:a
questionnairestudy.ElectromagnBiolMed.2014Jan;33(1):157.
“Thestudyhasshownthatusersofmobilephoneandcomputermoreoftencomplainedofheadache,
jointandbonepain,hearingloss,vertigo/dizziness,tensionanxietysymptomsaccordingtotimeofdaily
usage(p<0.05).”
MadhuriSudan,LeekaKheifets,OnyebuchiArah,JornOlsen,LonnieZeltzer.(2012).PrenatalandPostnatal
CellPhoneExposuresandHeadachesinChildren.OpenPediatricsMedicalJournal.
4652.
Childrenwithcellphoneexposurehadhigheroddsofmigrainesandheadacherelatedsymptomsthan
childrenwithnoexposure.
45
SzyjkowskaA,GadzickaE,SzymczakW,BortkiewiczA.(2014).Theriskofsubjectivesymptomsin
mobilephoneusersinPolandAnepidemiologicalstudy.IntJOccupMedEnvironHealth
.27(2),
293303.
aquestionnairesurveyof53questions.
Headacheswerereportedsignificantlymoreoftenbythepeoplewhotalkedfrequentlyandlongin
comparisonwithotherusers
Continuousheadache,persistingforlongerthan6hsincetheendofacall,wasreportedby26%ofthe
subjects.
Ourresultsshowthatthemobilephoneusersmayexperiencesubjectivesymptoms,theintensityof
whichdependsontheintensityofuseofmobilephones.
NeurotoxicEffects/NeurologicalImpacts:
BasO,OdaciE,KaplanS,AcerN.(2009).900MHzelectromagneticfieldexposureaffectsqualitativeand
quantitativefeaturesofhippocampalpyramidalcellsinadultrat.BrainResearch
.
1265,178–185.
Astatisticallysignificantdecreaseinthepyramidalcellsofthehippocampusandanincreaseindark
cells.
BasO,OdaciE,MollaogluH,UcokK,KaplanS.(2009).Chronicprenatalexposuretothe900megahertz
electromagneticfieldinducespyramidalcelllossinthehippocampusofnewbornrats.ToxicolInd
Health
.25,377–384.
Results:Asignificantreductioninthetotalnumberofpyramidalcellsinthecornuammonisofthe
hippocampus,whichinvolvesshorttermmemoryandlearning.
Sixteenweekoldratsarecomparabletotheageofhumanteenagers.
BinLv,ZhiyeChen,TongningWu,QingShao,DuoYan,LinMa,KeLu,YiXie.(2014).Thealterationof
spontaneouslowfrequencyoscillationscausedbyacuteelectromagneticfieldsexposure.Clin
Neurophysiol.
125(2),27786.
30minLTE4Gexposuremodulatedthespontaneouslowfrequencyfluctuationsinbrainregions.
JingJ,YuhuaZ,XiaoqianY,RongpingJ,DongmeiG,XiC.(2012).Theinfluenceofmicrowaveradiation
fromcellularphoneonfetalratbrain,ElectromagnBiolMed.
31(1),5766.
Pregnantratswereexposedtodifferentintensitiesofmicrowaveradiationfromcellularphones.
Significantcontentdifferenceswerefoundinsuperoxidedismutase(SOD),glutathioneperoxidase
(GSHPx),malondialdehyde(MDA),noradrenaline(NE),dopamine(DA)afterfetalbrainswere
assayed.
“Throughthisstudy,weconcludedthatreceivingacertainperiodofmicrowaveradiationfromcellular
phonesduringpregnancyhascertainharmonfetalratbrains.”
JúniorLC,GuimarãesED,MussoCM,StablerCT,GarciaRM,MourãoJúniorCA,AndreazziAE.(2014).
BehaviorandmemoryevaluationofWistarratsexposedto1∙8GHzradiofrequencyelectromagnetic
radiation.NeurolRes.36(1).
46
Frequencyofrearingwasincreasedby193.3%,revealinganincreaseinexploratoryactivityofthe
animals,whichisalsorelatedtoanxiety,depression,andstressfulbehavior.
OurdatacorroboratethatreportedbyNarayananetal.,21whoshowedin2012thatanimalsexposed
tomobilephoneradiationhadanincreasedfrequencyofrearing.
NaziroğluM.andGumral.(2009).ModulatoreffectsofLcarnitineandseleniumonwirelessdevices(2.45
GHz)inducedoxidativestressandelectroencephalographyrecordsinbrainofrat.
IntJRadiatBiol
.
85(8),680689.
Ratsexposedto2.45GHz60min/dayfor28dayshadlowercortexbrainvitaminA(p<0.05),vitamin
C(p<0.01)andvitaminE(p<0.05)concentrations.
NittbyH,BrunA,EberhardtJ,MalmgrenL,PerssonBR,SalfordLG.(2010).Effectsofmicrowaveradiation
uponthemammalianbloodbrainbarrier.EuropeanJournalofOncology.
5,333355.
EMFradiationleadstoincreasedpermeabilityoftheBloodBrainBarrier(BBB)atnonthermal
exposurelevels.
DamagingeffectsfromradiofrequencyEMFuponneuronshasbeenshownafter28daysand50days.
“ThehumanBBBisverysimilartotherodentBBB...itisoursincerebelief,thatitismoreprobablethan
unlikely,thatnonthermalEMFfrommobilephonesandbasestationsdohaveeffectsuponthehuman
brain.
OdaciE,BasO,KaplanS.(2008).Effectsofprenatalexposuretoa900megahertzelectromagneticfield
onthedentategyrusofrats:astereologicalandhistopathologicalstudy.BrainResearch.
1238,
224–229.
Prenatalexposurecausedaprogressivepostnataldeclineinthenumberofgranulecellsofdentate
gyrusofthehippocampusofoffspring.
QiaoS,PengR,YanH,GaoY,WangC,etal.(2014)ReductionofPhosphorylatedSynapsinI(Ser553)
LeadstoSpatialMemoryImpairmentbyAttenuatingGABAReleaseafterMicrowaveExposurein
WistarRats.PLoSONE.
9(4)
Intheratexperiments,therewasadecreaseinspatialmemoryperformanceaftermicrowaveexposure.
BothmicrowaveexposureandpSynIsilencingreducedGABAreleaseandmaximalreductionwas
foundforthecombinationofthetwo,indicatingasynergeticeffect.
pSynI(ser553)wasfoundtoplayakeyroleintheimpairedGABAreleaseandcognitivedysfunction
thatwasinducedbymicrowaveexposure.
RazavinasabM,MoazzamiK,ShabaniM.(2014).Maternalmobilephoneexposurealtersintrinsic
electrophysiologicalpropertiesofCA1pyramidalneuronsinratoffspring.ToxicolIndHealth.30(2),
101196.

Mobilephoneexposurewasmostlyassociatedwithadecreaseinthenumberofactionpotentialsfired
inspontaneousactivityandinresponsetocurrentinjectioninbothmaleandfemalegroups.Therewas
47
anincreaseintheamplitudeoftheafterhyperpolarization(AHP)inmobilephoneratscomparedwith
thecontrol.
TheresultsofthepassiveavoidanceandMorriswatermazeassessmentoflearningandmemory
performanceshowedthatphoneexposuresignificantlyalteredlearningacquisitionandmemory
retentioninmaleandfemaleratscomparedwiththecontrolrats.
Ourresultssuggestthatexposuretomobilephonesadverselyaffectsthecognitiveperformanceofboth
femaleandmaleoffspringratsusingbehavioralandelectrophysiologicaltechniques.
RedmayneM,JohanssonO.(2014)Couldmyelindamagefromradiofrequencyelectromagneticfieldexposure
helpexplainthefunctionalimpairmentelectrohypersensitivity?Areviewoftheevidence.JToxicolEnviron
HealthBCritRev;17(5):24758.
“ThisreviewofRFEMFpeerreviewedliteratureoutlinesthedevelopmentofmyelinthroughlife,and
thenconsiderstheevidenceforanassociationbetweenmyelinintegrityandexposuretolowintensity
radiofrequencyelectromagneticfields(RFEMFs)typicalinthemodernworld.
Therearesurprisinglylittledataavailableineacharea,butconsideredtogetherapicturebeginsto
emergeinRFEMFexposedcases:(1)significantmorphologicallesionsinthemyelinsheathofrats;
(2)agreaterriskofmultiplesclerosisinastudysubgroup;(3)effectsinproteinsrelatedtomyelin
production;and(4)physicalsymptomsinindividualswithfunctionalimpairmentelectrohypersensitivity,
manyofwhicharethesameasifmyelinwereaffectedbyRFEMFexposure,givingrisetosymptoms
ofdemyelination.Inthelatter,thereareexceptions;headacheiscommononlyinelectrohypersensitivity,
whileataxiaistypicalofdemyelinationbutinfrequentlyfoundintheformergroup.
Overall,evidencefrominvivoandinvitroandepidemiologicalstudiessuggestsanassociation
betweenRFEMFexposureandeithermyelindeteriorationoradirectimpactonneuronalconduction,
whichmayaccountformanyelectrohypersensitivitysymptoms.Themostvulnerablearelikelytobe
thoseinuterothroughtoatleastmidteenyears,aswellasillandelderlyindividuals.
SaikhedkarN,BhatnagarM,JainA,SukhwalP,SharmaC,JaiswalN.(2014).Effectsofmobilephone
radiation(900MHzradiofrequency)onstructureandfunctionsofratbrain.NeurolRes.
2(6),24992504.
Thusourfindingsindicateextensiveneurodegenerationonexposuretoradiowaves.Increased
productionofreactiveoxygenspeciesduetoexhaustionofenzymaticandnonenzymaticantioxidants
andincreasedlipidperoxidationareindicatingextensiveneurodegenerationinselectiveareasofCA1,
CA3,DG,andcerebralcortex.Thisextensiveneuronaldamageresultsinalterationsinbehaviorrelated
tomemoryandlearning.
SiravB,SeyhanN.(2011).Effectsofradiofrequencyradiationexposureonbloodbrainbarrier
permeabilityinmaleandfemalerats.ElectromagneticBiologyandMedicine
.30(4),25360.
AsignificantincreaseinalbuminwasfoundinthebrainsoftheRFexposedmaleratswhencompared
toshamexposedmalebrains.
Radiofrequencyradiation“atlevelsbelowtheinternationallimitscanaffectthevascularpermeabilityin
thebrainofmalerats.ThepossibleriskofRFRexposureinhumansisamajorconcernforthesociety.”
VolkowND,TomasiD,WangGJ,VaskaP,FowlerJS,TelangF,AlexoffD,LoganJ,WongC.(2011).Effects
ofcellphoneradiofrequencysignalexposureonbrainglucosemetabolism.JournaloftheAmerican
MedicalAssociation
,305(8),80813.
48
A50minutecellphoneexposurewasassociatedwithincreasedbrainglucosemetabolismintheregion
closesttotheantenna.
Cognition/Memory
AldadTS,GanG,GaoXB,TaylorHS.(2012).FetalRadiofrequencyRadiationExposureFrom8001900
MHzRatedCellularTelephonesAffectsNeurodevelopmentandBehaviorinMice.ScientificReports
;
2,
312.
theexposedgrouphaddoseresponsiveimpairedneurologictransmissioninthe
prefrontalcortex.
themiceexposedinuterowerehyperactiveandhadimpaired
memory.
DeshmukhPS,BanerjeeBD,AbegaonkarMP,MeghaK,AhmedRS,TripathiAK,MedirattaPK.(2013).Effect
oflowlevelmicrowaveradiationexposureoncognitivefunctionandoxidativestressinrats.IndianJ
BiochemBiophys;
50(2),1149.
“Resultsshowedsignificantimpairmentincognitivefunctionandincreaseinoxidativestress,as
evidencedbytheincreaseinlevelsofMDA(amarkeroflipidperoxidation)andproteincarbonyl(a
markerofproteinoxidation)andunalteredGSHcontent.
“LowlevelMWradiationhadsignificanteffectoncognitivefunctionandwasalsocapableofleadingto
oxidativestress.”
Megha,KDeshmukh,PS,Banerjee,BD,Tripathi,AK,Abegaonkar,MP.(2012).Microwaveradiation
inducedoxidativestress,cognitiveimpairmentandinflammationinbrainofFischerrats.IndianJ
ExperimentalBiology
.50(12),889896.
“Significantimpairmentincognitivefunctionandinductionofoxidativestressinbraintissuesof
microwaveexposedratswereobserved.”
Increasedoxidativestressduetomicrowaveexposuremaycontributetocognitiveimpairmentand
inflammationinbrain.”
NittbyH,GrafströmG,TianDP,MalmgrenL,BrunA.(2008).Cognitiveimpairmentinratsafterlongterm
exposuretoGSM900mobilephoneradiation.Bioelectromagnetics.
29,219–232.
GSMexposedratshadimpairedmemoryforobjectsandtheirtemporalorderofpresentation,
comparedtoshamexposedcontrols(P=0.02).
"OurresultssuggestsignificantlyreducedmemoryfunctionsinratsafterGSMmicrowaveexposure
(P=0.02)."
PapageorgiouC,HountalaCD,MaganiotiAE,KyprianouMA,RabavilasAD,PapadimitriouGN,CapsalisCN.
(2011).Effectsofwifisignalsonthep300componentofeventrelatedpotentialsduringanauditory
haylingtask.JournalofIntegrativeNeuroscience.
10(2),189202.
AWiFiaccesspointwas1.5metersawayduringblindexposures.
49
Inconclusion,thepresentfindingssuggestthatWiFiexposuremayexertgenderrelatedalterationson
neuralactivityassociatedwiththeamountofattentionalresourcesengagedduringalinguistictest
adjustedtoinduceWorkingMemory.
BehaviorIssues:
AldadTS,GanG,GaoXB,TaylorHS.(2012).FetalRadiofrequencyRadiationExposureFrom8001900
MhzRatedCellularTelephonesAffectsNeurodevelopmentandBehaviorinMice.ScientificReports.
2,
312.
Micethatwereexposedtoradiationtendedtobemorehyperactiveandhadreducedmemorycapacity.
Authorsattributedthebehavioralchangestoaneffectduringpregnancyonthedevelopmentofneurons
intheprefrontalcortexregionofthebrain.
DivanHA,KheifetsL,ObelC,OlsenJ.(2012).Cellphoneuseandbehaviouralproblemsinyoung
children.JEpidemiolCommunityHealth.
66(6),5249.
Thefindingsofthepreviouspublicationwerereplicatedinthisseparategroupofparticipants
demonstratingthatcellphoneusewasassociatedwithbehaviouralproblemsatage7yearsinchildren,
andthisassociationwasnotlimitedtoearlyusersofthetechnology.
DivanHA,KheifetsL,ObelC,OlsenJ.(2008).Prenatalandpostnatalexposuretocellphoneuseand
behavioralproblemsinchildren.Epidemiology
.
19(4),5239.
Exposuretocellphonesprenatallyand,toalesserdegree,postnatallywasassociatedwithbehavioral
difficultiessuchasemotionalandhyperactivityproblemsaroundtheageofschoolentry.
FeizhouZheng,PengGao,MindiHe,MinLi,ChangxiWang,QichangZeng,ZhouZhou,ZhengpingYu,and
LeiZhang.Associationbetweenmobilephoneuseandinattentionin7102Chineseadolescents:a
populationbasedcrosssectionalstudy.BMCPublicHealth2014,14:1022
doi:10.1186/14712458141022
Acrosssectionalstudywith7720middleschoolstudentsassessedforinattentionandinformationon
Mobilephoneuse.
Results:Inattentioninadolescentswassignificantlyassociatedwithmobilephone(MP)ownership,the
timespentonentertainmentonMPperday,thepositionoftheMPduringthedayandthemodeofthe
MPatnight.
ThestrongestassociationbetweeninattentionandthetimespentontheMPwasamongstudentswho
spentmorethan60minutesperdayplayingontheirMP.
NarayananSN,KumarRS,KedageV,NaliniK,NayakS,BhatPG,(2014)Evaluationofoxidantstressand
antioxidantdefenseindiscretebrainregionsofratsexposedto900MHzradiation.BratislavaMedical
Journal;115(5):2606.
Wistarrats(68weeksold)wereallottedintocontrol,shamandexposedgroups.Exposedgroupwas
exposedto900MHzofRFEMR(1hr/daywithpeakpowerdensityof146.60µW/cm2)froman
activatedGSMmobilephoneforfourweeks.On29thday,behavioralanalysiswasdoneandlater
biochemicalparameterswerestudiedinamygdala,hippocampus,frontalcortex,andcerebellum.
AlteredbehavioralperformanceswerefoundinRFEMRexposedrats.Additionally,elevatedTBARS
50
levelwasfoundwithallbrainregionsstudied.RFEMRexposuresignificantlydecreasedTAinthe
amygdalaandcerebellumbutitslevelwasnotsignificantlychangedinotherbrainregions.GSTactivity
wassignificantlydecreasedinthehippocampusbut,itsactivitywasunalteredinotherbrainregions
studied.
Conclusion:"RFEMRexposureforamonthinducedoxidativestressinratbrain,butitsmagnitudewas
differentindifferentregionsstudied.RFEMRinducedoxidativestresscouldbeoneoftheunderlying
causesforthebehavioraldeficitsseeninratsafterRFEMRexposure."
Sleep
HillertL,AkerstedtT,LowdenA,WiholmC,KusterN,EbertS,BoutryC,MoffatSD,BergM,ArnetzBB.
(2007).TheEffectsof884MHzGSMWirelessCommunicationSignalsonSelfreportedSymptomand
Sleep(EEG)AnExperimentalProvocationStudy.Bioelectromagnetics.
3(7),11481150.
Aprolongedlatencytoreachthefirstcycleofdeepsleep(stage3).
Theamountofstage4sleepwasalsodecreasedinexposedsubjects.
Subjectsreportedmoreheadachesduringexposuresvs.shamexposure.
K.MannandJ.Röschke.(1996)."EffectsofPulsedHighFrequencyElectromagneticFieldsonHuman
Sleep,"Neuropsychobiology
.33,4147.
ShorteningofsleeponsetlatencyandaREM(RapidEyeMovement)suppressiveeffectwithreduction
ofdurationandpercentageofREMsleep.
“Theeffectsobservedpossiblycouldbeassociatedwithalterationsofmemoryandlearningfunctions."
RegelSJ1,TinguelyG,SchudererJ,AdamM,KusterN,LandoltHP,AchermannP.(2007).Pulsed
radiofrequencyelectromagneticfields:dosedependenteffectsonsleep,thesleepEEGandcognitive
performance.JournalofSleepResearch
.16(3),2538.
ShowedadoseresponserelationshipbetweenEMFfieldintensityanditseffectsonbrainphysiology
asdemonstratedbychangesinthesleepEEGandincognitiveperformance.
SchmidMR,MurbachM,LustenbergerC,MaireM,KusterN,AchermannP,LoughranSP.(2012).SleepEEG
alterations:effectsofdifferentpulsemodulatedradiofrequencyelectromagneticfields.
JournalofSleep
Research.
21(1),508.
“Consistentwithpreviousfindings,ourresultsprovidefurtherevidencethatpulsemodulatedRFEMF
alterbrainphysiology”.
Modulationfrequencycomponentswithinaphysiologicalrangemaybesufficienttoinducethese
effects.
OxidativeStress
AugnerC,HackerGW,OberfeldG,FlorianM,HitzlW,HutterJ,PauserG.(2010).Effectsofexposureto
GSMmobilephonebasestationsignalsonsalivarycortisol,alphaamylase,andimmunoglobulinA.
BiomedEnvironSci.
23(3),199207.
51
Increasesofcortisolandahigherconcentrationofalphaamylaseweredetectedinsubjectsunder
variousEMFexposurescenarios.
RFEMFinconsiderablylowerfielddensitiesthanICNIRPguidelinesmayinfluencecertain
psychobiologicalstressmarkers.
CetinH,NazıroğluM,CelikO,YükselM,PastacıN,OzkayaMO.(2014).Liverantioxidantstoresprotect
thebrainfromelectromagneticradiation(900and1800MHz)inducedoxidativestressinratsduring
pregnancyandthedevelopmentofoffspring.JMaternFetalNeonatalMed.
27(6).
“EMRinducedoxidativestressinthebrainandliverwasreducedduringthedevelopmentof
offspring.EMRcouldbeconsideredasacauseofoxidativebrainandliverinjuryingrowingrats”.
HamzanyY,FeinmesserR,ShpitzerT,MizrachiA,HillyO,HodR,BaharG,OtradnovI,GavishM,Nagler
RM.(2013).IsHumanSalivaanIndicatoroftheAdverseHealthEffectsofUsingMobilePhones?
AntioxidRedoxSignal.18(6),6227.
Significantincreaseinallsalivaryoxidativestressindicesstudiedinmobilephoneusers.
Salivaryflow,totalprotein,albumin,andamylaseactivityweredecreasedinmobilephoneusers.
“Theseobservationsleadtothehypothesisthattheuseofmobilephonesmaycauseoxidativestress
andmodifysalivaryfunction.”
HouQ1,WangM,WuS,MaX,AnG,LiuH,XieF.(2014).Oxidativechangesandapoptosisinducedby
1800MHzelectromagneticradiationinNIH/3T3cells.ElectromagnBiolMed.
OurresultsshowedasignificantincreaseinintracellularROSlevelsafterEMRexposure
ThepercentageoflateapoptoticcellsintheEMRexposedgroupwassignificantlyhigherthanthatin
theshamexposedgroups(p<0.05).
Theseresultsindicatethatan1800MHzEMRenhancesROSformationandpromotesapoptosisin
NIH/3T3cells.
NazıroğluM,YükselM,KöseSA,ÖzkayaMO.(2013).RecentreportsofWiFiandmobilephoneinduced
radiationonoxidativestressandreproductivesignalingpathwaysinfemalesandmales.JMembrBiol.
246(12),86975.
ReviewPaper:“Inconclusion,theresultsofcurrentstudiesindicatethatoxidativestressfromexposure
toWiFiandmobilephoneinducedEMRisasignificantmechanismaffectingfemaleandmale
reproductivesystems.”
TomrukA1,GulerG,DincelAS.(2010).Theinfluenceof1800MHzGSMlikesignalsonhepaticoxidative
DNAandlipiddamageinnonpregnant,pregnant,andnewlybornrabbits.CellBiochemBiophys
.56(1),
3947.
“thewholebody1800MHzGSMlikeRFradiationexposuremayleadtooxidativedestructionasbeing
indicatorsofsubsequentreactionsthatoccurtoformoxygentoxicityintissues”
Yakymenko.(2014).Lowintensityradiofrequencyradiation:anewoxidantforlivingcells.
52
OxidAntioxidMedSci.
3(1),13.
A“strongnonthermalcharacterofbiologicaleffectsofRFRhasbeendocumented”and“itisclearthat
thesubstantialoverproductionofROSinlivingcellsunderlowintensityRFRexposurecouldcausea
broadspectrumofhealthdisordersanddiseases,includingcancerinhumans.
Undoubtedly,thiscallsforthefurtherintensiveresearchinthearea,aswellastoaprecautionary
approachinroutineusageofwirelessdevices.”
DNAImpacts
BurlakaA,TsybulinO,SidorikE,LukinS,PolishukV,TsehmistrenkoS,Yakymenko.(2013).Overproduction
offreeradicalspeciesinembryonalcellsexposedtolowintensityradiofrequencyradiation.ExpOncol.
35(3),219225.
“ExposureofdevelopingquailembryostoextremelylowintensityRFEMRofGSM900MHzduringat
leastonehundredandfiftyeighthoursleadstoasignificantoverproductionoffreeradicals/reactive
oxygenspeciesandoxidativedamageofDNAinembryocells.Theseoxidativechangesmayleadto
pathologiesuptooncogenictransformationofcells.”
BlankM,GoodmanR.(2011).DNAisafractalantennainelectromagneticfields.IntJRadiatBiol.
87(4),
40915.
“ThewidefrequencyrangeofinteractionwithEMFisthefunctionalcharacteristicofafractalantenna,
andDNAappearstopossessthetwostructuralcharacteristicsoffractalantennas,electronic
conductionandselfsymmetry.ThesepropertiescontributetogreaterreactivityofDNAwithEMFinthe
environment,andtheDNAdamagecouldaccountforincreasesincancerepidemiology,aswellas
variationsintherateofchemicalevolutioninearlygeologichistory.”
GulerG,TomrukA,OzgurE,SeyhanN.(2010).TheeffectofradiofrequencyradiationonDNAandlipid
damageinnonpregnantandpregnantrabbitsandtheirnewborns.GenPhysiolBiophys
.29(1),5966.
Malondialdehydeand8hydroxy2deoxyguanosinelevelsofnonpregnantandpregnant
radiofrequencyexposedanimalssignificantlyincreasedcomparedwithnotexposedcontrols.
Theauthorsconclude,that1800MHzGSMlikeradiofrequencyexposureofnonpregnantand
pregnantrabbitsforsevendaysresultedinthereleaseofsecondarymessengers,suchasfree
radicals,leadingtooxidativedestructioninlipidsandDNA.
RabbitsprenatallyexposedtocellphoneradiationdevelopedmoreindicatorsofDNAdamagesuchas
greateramountsoffreeradicals.
GülerG,TomrukA,OzgurE,SahinD,SepiciA,AltanN,SeyhanN.(2012).Theeffectofradiofrequency
radiationonDNAandlipiddamageinfemaleandmaleinfantrabbits.InternationalJournalofRadiation
Biology
.88(4),367–373.
LipidperoxidationlevelsinthelivertissuesoffemaleandmaleinfantrabbitsincreasedunderRF
radiationexposure.Liver8hydroxy2’deoxyguanosine(8OHdG)levelsoffemalerabbitsexposedto
RFradiationwerealsofoundtoincreasewhencomparedwiththelevelsofnonexposedinfants.
Conclusion:Consequently,itcanbeconcludedthatGSMlikeRFradiationmayinducebiochemical
53
changesbyincreasingfreeradicalattackstostructuralbiomoleculesintherabbitasanexperimental
animalmodel.
RuedigerHW.(2009).Genotoxiceffectsofradiofrequencyelectromagneticfields.Pathophysiology.
16(23),89102.
Review:101publicationsreviewedonthegenotoxicityofradiofrequencyelectromagneticfields
(RFEMF)invivoandinvitro.Ofthese49reportagenotoxiceffectand42donot.Inaddition,8studies
failedtodetectaninfluenceonthegeneticmaterial,butshowedthatRFEMFenhancedthegenotoxic
actionofotherchemicalorphysicalagents...TakingaltogetherthereisampleevidencethatRFEMF
canalterthegeneticmaterialofexposedcellsinvivoandinvitroandinmorethanoneway.This
genotoxicactionmaybemediatedbymicrothermaleffectsincellularstructures,formationoffree
radicals,oraninteractionwithDNArepairmechanisms.
TomrukA,GulerG,DincelAS.(2010).Theinfluenceof1800MHzGSMlikesignalsonhepaticoxidative
DNAandlipiddamageinnonpregnant,pregnant,andnewlybornrabbits.
CellBiochemBiophys
.56(1),
3947.
Thisstudylookedatthebiologicaleffectsofwholebody1800MHzGSMlikeradiofrequency(RF)
radiationexposureonliveroxidativeDNAdamageandlipidperoxidationlevelsinnonpregnant,
pregnantNewZealandWhiterabbits,andintheirnewlyborns.
KeyFindings:InnonpregnantRFexposedandpregnantRFexposedmalondialdehyde(MDA)and
ferrousoxidationinxylenolorange(FOX)levelswereincreasedcomparedtononpregnantcontrols.
Inthisstudy,wefoundthatwholebody1800MHzGSMlikeRFexposurefor15min/dayforaweek
couldaffectlipidperoxidationbyincreasingMDAandFOXlevelsinnonpregnantsandpregnant.
“thewholebody1800MHzGSMlikeRFradiationexposuremayleadtooxidativedestructionasbeing
indicatorsofsubsequentreactionsthatoccurtoformoxygentoxicityintissues”
XuS,ZhouZ,ZhangL,YuZ,ZhangW,WangY,WangX,LiM,ChenY,ChenC,HeM,ZhangG,ZhongM.
(2010).Exposureto1800MHzradiofrequencyradiationinducesoxidativedamagetomitochondrial
DNAinprimaryculturedneurons.
BrainResearch.
22(1311),18996.
Inthisstudy,weexposedprimaryculturedcorticalneuronstopulsedRFelectromagneticfieldsata
frequencyof1800MHzmodulatedby217Hzatanaveragespecialabsorptionrate(SAR)of2W/kg.At
24hafterexposure,wefoundthatRFradiationinducedasignificantincreaseinthelevelsof
8hydroxyguanine(8OHdG),acommonbiomarkerofDNAoxidativedamage,inthemitochondriaof
neurons.Concomitantwiththisfinding,thecopynumberofmtDNAandthelevelsofmitochondrialRNA
(mtRNA)transcriptsshowedanobviousreductionafterRFexposure.EachofthesemtDNA
disturbancescouldbereversedbypretreatmentwithmelatonin,whichisknowntobeanefficient
antioxidantinthebrain.
Theseresultssuggestedthat1800MHzRFradiationcouldcauseoxidativedamagetomtDNAin
primaryculturedneurons.OxidativedamagetomtDNAmayaccountfortheneurotoxicityofRF
radiationinthebrain.”
54
ZhijianC,XiaoxueL,YezhenL,ShijieC,LifenJ,JianlinL,DeqiangL,JiliangH.(2009)Impactof1.8GHz
radiofrequencyradiation(RFR)onDNAdamageandrepairinducedbydoxorubicininhumanBcell
lymphoblastoidcells.MutatRes
.695(12),1621.
“Invitrostudy,acometassaywasusedtodeterminewhether1.8GHzradiofrequencyradiation(RFR,
SARof2W/kg)caninfluenceDNArepairinhumanBcelllymphoblastoidcellsexposedtodoxorubicin
(DOX)
DNAdamagewasdetectedat0h,6h,12h,18hand24hafterexposuretoDOXviathecometassay,
andthepercentofDNAinthetail(%tailDNA)servedastheindicatorofDNAdamage.
Theresultsdemonstratedthat(1)RFRcouldnotdirectlyinduceDNAdamageofhumanBcell
lymphoblastoidcells;(2)DOXcouldsignificantlyinduceDNAdamageofhumanBcelllymphoblastoid
cellswiththedoseeffectrelationship,andtherewerespecialrepaircharacteristicsofDNAdamage
inducedbyDOX;(3)EEEtype(exposuretoRFRfor2h,thensimultaneousexposuretoRFRand
DOX,andexposuretoRFRfor6h,12h,18hand24hafterexposuretoDOX)combinativeexposure
couldobviouslyinfluenceDNArepairat6hand12hafterexposuretoDOXforfourDOXdoses
(0.075microg/ml,0.10microg/ml,0.15microg/mland0.20microg/ml)inhumanBcelllymphoblastoid
cells.”
EndocrineSystem
KesariKK,KumarS,BehariJ.(2011).900MHzmicrowaveradiationpromotesoxidationinratbrain.
ElectromagnBiolMed.
30(4),219234.
Significantdecreaseintheenzymeactivitiesofglutathioneperoxidaseandsuperoxidedismutase,and
anincreaseincatalaseenzymeactivity.ProteinkinaseCenzymeactivitywassignificantlydecreased
inthesamplesoftheexposedgroup(hippocampusandwholebrain).
Asignificantdecreaseinthelevelofpinealmelatoninandasignificantincreaseincreatinekinaseand
caspase3enzymeactivitieswasobservedintheexposedgroup(wholebrain).
Asignificantincreaseinthelevelofreactiveoxygenspecieswasalsorecorded.
KesariKK,KumarS,BehariJ.(2012).Pathophysiologyofmicrowaveradiation:effectonratbrain.Appl
BiochemBiotechnol
.ApplBiochemBiotechnol
.166(2),37988.
Asignificantdecreaseinthelevelofpinealmelatoninoftheexposedgroup.
Asignificantincreaseincreatinekinase,caspase3,andcalciumionconcentrationwasobservedin
wholebrainofexposedgroupofanimals.
Thestudyconcludesthatareductioninmelatoninoranincreaseincaspase3,creatinekinase,and
calciumionmaycausesignificantdamageinbrainduetochronicexposureoftheseradiations.These
biomarkersclearlyindicatepossiblehealthimplicationsofsuchexposures.
KoyuA,CesurG,OzgunerF,AkdoganM,MollaogluH,OzenS.(2005).Effectsof900MHzelectromagnetic
fieldonTSHandthyroidhormonesinrats.ToxicologyLetters.
157(3),257262.
TSHvaluesandT3T4atthe900MHzEMFgroupweresignificantlylower.
Theseresultsindicatethat900MHzEMFemittedbycellulartelephonesdecreaseserumTSHand
55
T3T4levels.
KumarS,KesariKK,BehariJ.(2011).Thetherapeuticeffectofapulsedelectromagneticfieldonthe
reproductivepatternsofmaleWistarratsexposedtoa2.45GHzmicrowavefield.
Clinics(SaoPaulo)
.
66(7),123745.
Significantincreasesincaspaseandcreatinekinase.
Significantdecreasesintestosteroneandmelatoninintheexposedgroups.
Thisfindingemphasizesthatreactiveoxygenspecies(apotentialinducerofcancer)aretheprimary
causeofDNAdamage.However,pulsedelectromagneticfieldexposurerelievestheeffectof
microwaveexposurebyinducingFaradaycurrents.
MortavaziS,HabibA,GanjKaramiA,SamimiDoostR,PourAbediA,BabaieA.(2009).AlterationsinTSH
andThyroidHormonesfollowingMobilePhoneUse.OmanMedJ.24(4),274–278.
AhigherthannormalTSHlevel,lowmeanT4andnormalT3concentrationswerefoundinmobile
users.
“Itmaybeconcludedthatpossibledeleteriouseffectsofmobilemicrowaveson
hypothalamicpituitarythyroidaxisaffectsthelevelsofthesehormones.”
ReviewsoftheResearch:
BlankM,GoodmanR.(2009).Electromagneticfieldsstresslivingcells.Pathophysiology.16(23),718.
“Electromagneticfields(EMF),inbothELF(extremelylowfrequency)andradiofrequency(RF)ranges,
activatethecellularstressresponse,aprotectivemechanismthatinducestheexpressionofstress
responsegenes,e.g.,HSP70,andincreasedlevelsofstressproteins,e.g.,hsp70.
WhilelowenergyEMFinteractswithDNAtoinducethestressresponse,increasingEMFenergyinthe
RFrangecanleadtobreaksinDNAstrands.Itisclearthatinordertoprotectlivingcells,EMFsafety
limitsmustbechangedfromthecurrentthermalstandard,basedonenergy,toonebasedonbiological
responsesthatoccurlongbeforethethresholdforthermalchanges”.
CarpenterDO.(2013).Humandiseaseresultingfromexposuretoelectromagneticfields.RevEnviron
Health
.
28(4),15972.
Thisreviewsummarizestheevidencestatingthatexcessiveexposuretomagneticfieldsfrompower
linesandothersourcesofelectriccurrentincreasestheriskofdevelopmentofsomecancersand
neurodegenerativediseases,andthatexcessiveexposuretoRFradiationincreasesriskofcancer,
maleinfertility,andneurobehavioralabnormalities.
Insummary,currentextensiveevidenceshowsthatexposuretoexcessivelevelsofELFandRFEMFs
resultsinelevatedratesofcancerandsomeotherdiseases,andsuchevidenceisrapidlygrowing.
CucurachiS,TamisWL,VijverMG,PeijnenburgWJ,BolteJF,deSnooGR.(2013).Areviewofthe
ecologicaleffectsofradiofrequencyelectromagneticfields(RFEMF).EnvironInt.
51,11640.
Asystematicreviewofpublishedscientificstudies.
56
InabouttwothirdofthereviewedstudiesecologicaleffectsofRFEMFwasreportedathighaswellas
atlowdosages.
“Weproposeinfuturestudiestoconductmorerepetitionsofobservationsandexplicitlyusethe
availablestandardsforreportingRFEMFrelevantphysicalparametersinbothlaboratoryandfield
studies.”
DavisDL,KesariS,SoskolneCL,MillerAB,SteinY.Swedishreviewstrengthensgroundsforconcludingthat
radiationfromcellularandcordlessphonesisaprobablehumancarcinogen.Pathophysiology.2013
Apr;20(2):1239
RecentanalysesnotconsideredintheIARCreviewfindthatbraintumorriskissignificantlyelevatedfor
thosewhohaveusedmobilephonesforatleastadecade.StudiescarriedoutinSwedenindicatethat
thosewhobeginusingeithercordlessormobilephonesregularlybeforeage20havegreaterthana
fourfoldincreasedriskofipsilateralglioma.
Highresolutioncomputerizedmodelsbasedonhumanimagingdatasuggestthatchildrenareindeed
moresusceptibletotheeffectsofEMFexposureatmicrowavefrequencies.Iftheincreasedbrain
cancerriskfoundinyoungusersintheserecentstudiesdoesapplyatthegloballevel,thegapbetween
supplyanddemandforoncologyserviceswillcontinuetowiden.
Braincanceristheproverbial"tipoftheiceberg";therestofthebodyisalsoshowingeffectsotherthan
cancers.
MartinPall.(2013).Electromagneticfieldsactviaactivationofvoltagegatedcalciumchannelsto
producebeneficialoradverseeffects,JournalofCellularandMolecularMedicine.17(8),95865.
Thispaperreviews24differentstudiesinwhichEMFexposuresproducebiologicaleffectsthatcanbe
blockedbyusingcalciumchannelblockers,drugsthatblocktheactionofvoltagegatedcalcium
channels(VGCCs).
EMFexposuresactbypartiallydepolarizingtheelectricalchargeacrosstheplasmamembraneofcells,
activatingtheVGCCsanditistheincreasedintracellularcalciumlevelsthatareresponsibleforthe
reactiontoEMFexposure.
ThisreviewexplainsamechanismfornonthermalbiologicaleffectsfromEMFswherebyvoltagegated
calciumchannelsareopenedupinthecellmembrane,allowingcalciumtoleakintothecells.
MarkovàE,MalmgrenL,BelyaevI,(2010).MicrowavesfromMobilePhonesInhibit53BP1Focus
FormationinHumanStemCellsMoreStronglyThaninDifferentiatedCells:PossibleMechanisticLink
toCancerRisk,EnvironHealthPerspect.
118(3),394–399.
“Thestrongestmicrowaveeffectswerealwaysobservedinstemcells.Thisresultmaysuggestboth
significantmisbalanceinDSBrepairandseverestressresponse.Ourfindingsthatstemcellsaremost
sensitivetomicrowaveexposureandreacttomorefrequenciesthandodifferentiatedcellsmaybe
importantforcancerriskassessmentandindicatethatstemcellsarethemostrelevantcellularmodel
forvalidatingsafemobilecommunicationsignals.”
MorganL,KesariS,DavisD.(2014).Whychildrenabsorbmoremicrowaveradiationthanadults:The
consequences.
JournalofMicroscopyandUltrastructure
.2(2).
ComputersimulationusingMRIscansofchildrenistheonlypossiblewaytodeterminethemicrowave
radiation(microwaveradiation)absorbedinspecifictissuesinchildren.
57
Childrenabsorbmoremicrowaveradiationthanadultsbecausetheirbraintissuesaremoreabsorbent,
theirskullsarethinnerandtheirrelativesizeissmaller.
InternationalCancerregistriesareshowingincreasedincidenceofCancer.Becausetheaverage
latencytimebetweenfirstexposureanddiagnosisofatumorcanbedecades,tumorsinducedin
childrenmaynotbediagnoseduntilwellintoadulthood.
Thefetusisparticularlyvulnerabletomicrowaveradiation.Microwaveradiationexposurecanresultin
degenerationoftheprotectivemyelinsheaththatsurroundsbrainneurons.
The20cmrulefortablets/laptopsviolatethe“normaloperatingposition”regulation.
Conclusions:Adolescentgirlsandwomenshouldnotplacecellphonesintheirbrasorinhijabs.Selling
toysthatusewirelessshouldbebanned.
Governmentwarningshavebeenissuedbutmostofthepublicareunawareofsuchwarnings.
Exposurelimitsareinadequateandshouldberevisedsuchthattheyareadequate.
YakymenkoI,SidorikE,HenshelD,KyrylenkoS.(2014).Lowintensityradiofrequencyradiation:anew
oxidantforlivingcells.
OxidantsandAntioxidantsinMedicalScience
.
3(1),13.
Thegroupreportedthatof80studies,theyhadassessed,92,5%(=76studies)confirmedthat
mechanismofinflictingdamage."Unexpectedly,astrongnonthermalcharacterofbiologicaleffects"
hadbeendocumented.
Lowintensityradiofrequencyradiation(RFR)emittedbymobilephoneenduserdevices"couldleadto
mutageniceffectsthroughexpressiveoxidativedamageofDNA".
"itisclearthatthesubstantialoverproductionofROSinlivingcellsunderlowintensityRFRexposure
couldcauseabroadspectrumofhealthdisordersanddiseases,includingcancerinhumans.
Undoubtedly,thiscallsforthefurtherintensiveresearchinthearea,aswellastoaprecautionary
approachinroutineusageofwirelessdevices."
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